Many games are designed to keep gamers compulsively playing—and renewing their subscription. To achieve this result, developers use techniques that derive from behavioral and brain research:
- The Skinner Box
- An environment in which the user is trained to “push the lever“, i.e. do a certain action over and over again in order to get a reward.
- Virtual food pellets
- Items that have nothing to do with the game itself, but are valuable to gamers because of the work required to obtain them (e.g., EverQuest); some people will end up collecting them for the sake of collecting.
- Random rewards
- They turn the game into the equivalent of a slot machine (e.g., World of Warcraft, ZT Online).
- Elaborate cycles
- Gamers' behavior can be “shaped” by making cycles (progress from one level to the next) slower and slower, designing complex tasks that are difficult to get out of (e.g. World of Warcraft), or conversely dividing them up in small chunks to avoid frustration (e.g., New Super Mario Bros.Wii).
- Decay of game assets
- This makes it necessary for a gamer to keep playing, without vacations, simply to avoid losing what they have earned so far (e.g., Farmville, Ultima Online, Animal Crossing).
Games such as World of Warcraft, which are considered very addictive, use several of these techniques.
However, the addictiveness of a game is only one of the determinants of addiction. Equally important are the psychological make-up and life circumstances of the gamer. Gaming addiction, like other addictions, is a form of mental escape from an unrewarding life. The sad truth is that, in the long run, it leads to an even worse life.
Note: We are not gamers. If you think we have misunderstood some point, or have suggestions for making this text clearer or more correct, please send them to <[email protected]>.
The revenue generated by these games is directly related to the number of strongly addicted gamers (called “whales”) and to the amount of money they are willing to spend. Thus developers carefully study the behavior of millions of users to increase the addictiveness of their games.
Unfortunately, the article uses “free” to mean “zero price.” We recommend saying “gratis” instead.
Resourceful children figured out how to empty their parents' bank account buying packs of special players for an Electronic Arts soccer game.
The random element of these packs (also called “loot boxes”) makes the game strongly addictive, but the fact that players are pressured to spend more in order to get ahead of their competitors further qualifies it as predatory. Note that Belgium made these loot boxes illegal in 2018.
The only good reason to have a copy of such a proprietary game is to study it for free software development.
On-line gambling services (and their nonfree client programs) are designed to be addictive, much like on-line games. They achieve this with various different malfunctionalities, often in combination.
Many of these malfunctionalities are implemented by the server and the client program together. In some cases, there is no honest way that the client program could counteract the nastiness—for instance, when the server manipulates amounts won in order to get the user addicted, the only way the client program could block that is to pretend the win did not happen, and users would not want that modification.
However, modification of the client program could cover up some addictive behaviors without losing the user anything.
Clash of Clans is a good example of a gratis mobile game that its developers made very addictive for a large proportion of its users—and turned into a cash machine for themselves—by using psychological manipulation techniques.
The article uses “free” to mean “zero price,” which is a usage we should avoid. We recommend saying “gratis” instead.
In the game Fruit Pop, the player buys boosts with coins to get a high score. The player gets coins at the end of each game, and can buy more coins with real money.
Getting a higher score once leads the player to desire higher score again later. But the higher score resulting from the boost does not give the player more coins, and does not help the player get a higher score in subsequent games. To get that, the player will need a boost frequently, and usually has to pay real money for that. Since boosts are exciting and entertaining, the player is subtly pushed to purchase more coins with real money to get boosts, and it can develop into a costly habit.
Game Of War: Fire Age is an iPhone game with addictive features which are based on behavioral manipulation techniques, compounded with group emulation. After a fairly easy start, the game slows down and becomes more difficult, so gamers are led to spend more and more money in order to keep up with their group. And if they stop playing for a while, the equipment they invested in gets destroyed by the “enemy” unless they buy an expensive “shield” to protect it. This game is also deceptive, as it uses confusing menus and complex stats to obfuscate true monetary costs.