GNU's Bulletin, vol. 1 no. 23, July, 1997
Table of Contents
- GNU's Who
- Administrivia and Copyright
- Other GPL'ed Software
- What Is the FSF?
- What Is Copyleft?
- What Is Linux?
- What Is a GNU/Linux system?
- What Is the Hurd?
- Become a Patron of the FSF
- Free Software Redistributors Donate
- Help from Free Software Companies
- New European Distributor
- Display Ghostscript Project
- Replacing Qt
- GNUs Flashes
- Help the Translation Project
- GNU & Other Free Software in Japan
- Forthcoming GNUs
- Free Software Support
- GNU Software
- Program/Package Cross Reference
- The Deluxe Distribution
- CD-ROM Subscription Service
- GNU Documentation
- How to Get GNU Software
- FSF T-shirt
- Free Software for Non-Unix-Like Systems
- Project GNU Wish List
- Thank GNUs
- Donations Translate Into Free Software
- Cygnus Matches Donations!
- Free Software Foundation Order Form
- Address Page
刀塔自走棋手游什么时候出 www.zvajc.icu Thomas Bushnell, n/BSG (whose name used to be Michael) and Miles Bader work on the Hurd. Karl Heuer enhances Emacs and is working on an accounting package, and with Ian Murdock is in charge of making Deluxe Distributions. Jim Blandy is working on GUILE, GNU's Ubiquitous Intelligent Language for Extension, and Teak, a desktop interface.
Melissa Weisshaus is working on special documentation projects.
Prof. Masayuki Ida is our Vice President for Japan. He is organizing Japanese seminars, working with GNU's friends in Japan, etc. Brian Youmans is our Distribution Manager and handles online inquiries. Paul Wendt has joined the FSF to handle the phones and much of the administrative work in the office. Carol Botteron, Robert J. Chassell, Tami Friedman, Peter H. Salus, and Len Tower Jr. have left the FSF. Tami continues to volunteer for GNU as our Administrivia Coordinator. We thank them for their hard work.
Volunteers Steve Morningthunder and Alex Bernadin help to coordinate all of the many volunteers in the GNU Project. Volunteer Paul van Gool coordinates our volunteer system administrators. Richard Stallman continues as a volunteer who does countless tasks, such as Emacs maintenance. Volunteer Phil Nelson works on our Web site.
Administrivia and Copyright
Written & Edited by
Illustrations by Etienne Suvasa.
Japanese Edition by Mieko Hikichi and Nobuyuki Hikichi
ISSN (International Standard Serial Number): 1075-7813
The GNU's Bulletin is published at (approximately) the end of January and the end of July each year. Please note that there is no postal mailing list. To get a copy, send your name and address with your request to the address on the top menu. Enclosing $1.00 in U.S. Postage and/or a donation of a few dollars is appreciated but not required. If you're outside the USA, sending a mailing label and enough International Reply Coupons for a package of about 100 grams is appreciated but not required. (Including a few extra International Reply Coupons for copying costs is also appreciated.)
Copyright (C) 1997 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
This page is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivs 3.0 United States License.
Other GPL'ed Software
We maintain a list of copylefted software that we do not presently
distribute. FTP the file
`/pub/gnu/GPLedSoftware' from a GNU FTP host
(see section How to Get GNU Software).
Please let us know of additional programs we should mention.
We don't list Emacs Lisp Libraries;
archive.cis.ohio-state.edu has a list of those you can FTP
in the file `/pub/gnu/emacs/elisp-archive/LCD-datafile.Z'.
What Is the FSF?
The Free Software Foundation is dedicated to eliminating restrictions on people's right to use, copy, modify, and redistribute computer programs. We do this by promoting the development and use of free software. Specifically, we are putting together a complete, integrated software system named "GNU" ("GNU's Not Unix", pronounced "guh-noo") that will be upwardly compatible with Unix. Most parts of this system are already being used and distributed.
The word "free" in our name refers to freedom, not price. You may or may not pay money to get GNU software, but either way you have three specific freedoms once you get it: first, the freedom to copy a program, and distribute it to your friends and co-workers; second, the freedom to change a program as you wish, by having full access to source code; third, the freedom to distribute a modified version and thus help build the community. Free software means you can study the source and learn how such programs are written; it means you can port it or improve it, and then share your work with others.
If you redistribute GNU software, you may charge a distribution fee or you may give it away, so long as you include the source code and the GNU General Public License; see section What Is Copyleft?, for details.
Other organizations distribute whatever free software happens to be available. By contrast, the Free Software Foundation concentrates on the development of new free software, working towards a GNU system complete enough to eliminate the need to use a proprietary system.
Besides developing GNU, the FSF distributes GNU software and manuals for a distribution fee, and accepts gifts (tax-deductible in the U.S.) to support GNU development. Most of the FSF's funds come from its distribution service.
The Board of the Foundation is: Richard M. Stallman, President;
Gerald J. Sussman and Harold Abelson, Directors.
What Is Copyleft?
The simplest way to make a program free is to put it in the public domain, uncopyrighted. But this permits proprietary modified versions, which deny others the freedom to redistribute and modify; such versions undermine the goal of giving freedom to all users. To prevent this, copyleft uses copyrights in a novel manner. Typically, copyrights take away freedoms; copyleft preserves them. It is a legal instrument that requires those who pass on a program to include the rights to use, modify, and redistribute the code; the code and the freedoms become legally inseparable.
The copyleft used by the GNU Project is made from the combination of a regular copyright notice and the GNU General Public License (GPL). The GPL is a copying license which basically says that you have the aforementioned freedoms. An alternate form, the GNU Library General Public License (LGPL), applies to a few (but not most) GNU libraries. This license permits linking the libraries into proprietary executables under certain conditions. The appropriate license is included in each GNU source code distribution and in many manuals. Printed copies are available upon request.
We strongly encourage you to copyleft your programs and documentation, and we have made it as simple as possible for you to do so. The details on how to apply either form of GNU Public License appear at the end of each license.
What Is Linux?
Linux (named after its main author, Linus Torvalds) is a GPLed kernel that
implements POSIX.1 functionality with SysV & BSD extensions.
GNU/Linux systems are now available for Alpha &
machines with one of these buses: ISA, VLB, EISA, PCI.
An m68k port is in
testing (it runs on high end Amiga & Atari computers).
MIPS, PowerPC & Sparc ports are being worked on.
FTP it from
tsx-11.mit.edu in `/pub/linux' (USA)
ftp.funet.fi in `/pub/Linux' (Europe).
[email protected] about mailing lists. See USENET
comp.os.linux.misc, for news.
What Is a GNU/Linux system?
by Richard M. Stallman
A GNU/Linux system is a system which is a combination of Linux and GNU.
Linux is a kernel, compatible with the Unix kernel, written by Linus Torvalds. There are several different distributions available via FTP and CD-ROM. None are distributed by the FSF at this time.
GNU is a Unix-like operating system. We started the GNU Project in 1984 with the aim of bringing such a system into existence. A Unix-like operating system consists of many components; we had to obtain each of the important components somehow. The job was so large that many of the people who sympathized with the goal were discouraged from attempting it, but we decided we would reach the goal no matter how long it took.
We found some components already available as free software--for example, the X Window System & TeX. Naturally we decided to use them, since the job was big enough even with short cuts. We got other components by helping to convince their developers to free them--for example, the Berkeley network utilities.
The rest of components, we had to write. These include Emacs, the GNU C & C++ compilers & libraries, Bash, Ghostscript, Groff, & many others.
All of these various components--those we wrote, those we helped make free, and those we found already available--together make up the GNU system.
Until recently, users couldn't run the GNU system, because one part (the kernel; see section What Is the Hurd?) was not yet ready. (We made the first test release in August 1996.) However, for a few years now, it has been possible to put together the Linux kernel and the almost-complete GNU system, resulting in a complete Unix-like free operating system suitable for actual use.
While commonly referred to as "Linux systems", we prefer the term "Linux-based GNU systems," or "GNU/Linux systems" for short, since these systems are mostly the same as the GNU system. This gives Linus credit for the kernel that he wrote, while indicating that these systems as a whole are variants of the GNU system.
We also occasionally use the term "GNU/Hurd system" to emphasize that we mean a version of the GNU system which uses the Hurd rather than Linux.
We think it is proper for the GNU Project to get credit for making the free Unix-like system that it set out for a decade ago. But there is a more important reason for friends of GNU to use names like "Linux-based GNU system" instead of "Linux system." This is to help spread the GNU Project's philosophical idea: that there is ethical importance in freeing users to share software and cooperate in improving it; that free software belongs to a community, and people who benefit from the community should feel a moral obligation to help build the community when they have a chance.
When users install a system which they call "Linux," they can easily miss ever seeing the GNU idea--or feel that it only indirectly touches on them and what they are doing. And if the GNU idea is not widely known or not taken seriously, it will not persuade as many people to write new free software.
A conference was held this year on the topic of developing "Linux applications". This conference was about using the GNU system, but the conference announcement did not mention the word GNU. Instead of encouraging users to write more free software, it did just the opposite. It included a panel entitled, "Licenses and licensing--I don't want to give away my application!!!" (The three `!' marks appeared in the announcement).
Of course, these conference organizers are entitled to state their views. But it would be harder for these views to gather support if the conference attendees recognized the operating system under discussion as a variant of the GNU system, and thought about these views in contrast with the GNU philosophy.
So please help make people aware of this relationship--please use "Linux-based GNU system" or "GNU/Linux" when you talk about a system which is a combination of Linux and GNU.
What Is the Hurd?
The Hurd is a collection of server processes that run on top of Mach, a free message-passing microkernel developed at CMU. The Hurd and Mach together form the kernel of the GNU/Hurd operating system. The GNU C Library implements the Unix "system call" interface by sending messages to Hurd servers as appropriate.
The Hurd allows users to create and share useful projects without knowing much about the internal workings of the system--projects that might never have been attempted without freely available source, a well-designed interface, and a multiple server design. The Hurd is thus like other expandable GNU software, e.g. Emacs and GUILE.
Currently, there are free ports of the Mach kernel to the 386 PC, the DEC PMAX workstation, and several other machines, with more in progress, including the Amiga, PA-RISC HP 700, & DEC Alpha-3000. Contact us if you want to help with one of these or start your own. Porting the GNU Hurd & GNU C Library is easy (easier than porting GNU Emacs, certainly easier than porting the compiler) once a Mach port to a particular platform exists.
We have made several test releases of the Hurd. See section GNUs Flashes, for recent progress.
We need help with significant Hurd-related projects.
Experienced system programmers who are interested should send mail
[email protected]. Porting the Mach kernel or the GNU C
Library to new systems is another way to help.
You can obtain test releases of the Hurd from a GNU FTP host (see section How to Get GNU Software) along with complete binaries for an i386 GNU system. We will not be distributing these on CD-ROM until they are more stable.
Become a Patron of the FSF
The Free Software Foundation wants to acknowledge its supporters and contributors in a more visible fashion. You can now become an "official" supporter of the FSF. See section Thank GNUs, for the names of people and organizations who have done so.
- $100 makes you a Supporter of the FSF; you get a listing of your name in GNU's Bulletin for a year.
- $500 makes you a Contributor; you get a listing and a Certificate.
- $1000 makes you a Sustaining Contributor; you get a listing, a Certificate, and a gift.
- $5000 makes you a Patron; you get all the "benefits" of a Sustaining Contributor plus a special gift.
The Free Software Foundation is a 501(c)(3) organization; all contributions are tax deductible in the US.
Free Software Redistributors Donate
The French redistributor PACT has agreed to donate $1.00 for each GNU/Linux CD that they sell.
Red Hat Software has agreed to donate $1.00 to the FSF for every copy of Red Hat Archives sold. They have also added a GNU logo to the back of that CD with the words "Supports the Free Software Foundation".
The SNOW 2.1 CD producers added the words "Includes $5 donation to the FSF" to the front of their CD. Potential buyers will know just how much of the price is for the FSF & how much is for the redistributor.
The Sun Users Group Deutschland has made it even clearer: their CD says, "Price 90 DM, + 12 DM donation to the FSF." We thank them for their contribution to our efforts.
Kyoto Micro Computer of Japan regularly gives us 10% of their GNU-related sales.
Mr. Hiroshi, Mr. Kojima, and the other authors of the Linux Primer in Japan have donated money from the sales of their book.
Infomagic has continued to make sizable donations to the FSF.
At the request of author Arnold Robbins, Specialized Systems Consultants, Inc. continues to donate 3% of their gross revenues from selling Effective AWK Programming. We would also like to acknowledge the many SSC authors who have donated their royalties and fees to the FSF.
In the long run, the success of free software depends on how much new free software people develop. Free software distribution offers an opportunity to raise funds for such development in an ethical way. These redistributors have made use of the opportunity. Many others let it go to waste.
You can help promote free software development by convincing for-a-fee redistributors to contribute--either by doing development themselves or by donating to development organizations (the FSF and others).
The way to convince distributors to contribute is to demand and expect this of them. This means choosing among distributors partly by how much they give to free software development. Then you can show distributors they must compete to be the one who gives the most.
To make this work, you must insist on numbers that you can compare, such as, "We will give ten dollars to the Foobar project for each disk sold." A vague commitment, such as "A portion of the profits is donated," doesn't give you a basis for comparison. Even a precise fraction "of the profits from this disk" is not very meaningful, since creative accounting and unrelated business decisions can greatly alter what fraction of the sales price counts as profit.
Also, press developers for firm information about what kind of development they do or support. Some kinds make much more long-term difference than others. For example, maintaining a separate version of a GNU program contributes very little; maintaining a program on behalf of the GNU Project contributes much. Easy new ports contribute little, since someone else would surely do them; difficult ports such as adding a new CPU to the GNU compiler or to Mach contribute more; major new features & programs contribute the most.
By establishing the idea that supporting further development is "the proper thing to do" when distributing free software for a fee, we can assure a steady flow of resources for making more free software.
Help from Free Software Companies
When choosing a free software business, ask those you are considering how much they do to assist free software development, e.g., by contributing money to free software development or by writing free software improvements themselves for general use. By basing your decision partially on this factor, you can help encourage those who profit from free software to contribute to its growth.
Wingnut (SRA's special GNU support group) supports the FSF by purchasing Deluxe Distribution packages on a regular basis. In this way they transfer 10% of their income to the FSF. Listing them here is our way of thanking them.
Wingnut Project Software Research Associates, Inc. 1-1-1 Hirakawa-cho, Chiyoda-ku Tokyo 102, Japan Phone: (+81-3)3234-2611 Fax: (+81-3)3942-5174 E-mail:
[email protected]WWW: `//www.sra.co.jp/public/sra/product/wingnut/'
New European Distributor
The Free Software Foundation now has a European distribution agent: GNU Distribution Europe, Belgium.
Users in European Community countries can order GNU manuals, CD-ROMs and T-shirts through this distribution agent, and get a lower overall price (due to reduced shipping costs) and quicker delivery. Their address is
GNU Distribution Europe, Belgium Sportstaat 28 9000 Gent Belgium Phone: +32-9-2227542 Fax: +32-9-2224976 Email:
Emacspeak is a speech output extension to Emacs. You listen instead of look. It allows someone who cannot see to work well with a computer.
T. V. Raman, who created Emacspeak, wrote it to use different voice personalities for different types of text: a WWW link sounds different from quoted text which in turn sounds different from regular text.
When you take a tty driver and make it speak (this is essentially what all PC screenreaders under DOS do), all you get to hear is the contents of the display; you're responsible for figuring out why it's there.
So, for instance, when a calendar application lays out the calendar to produce a well-formatted tabular display, it looks nice; but the blind user hears "1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2 3 4 5 6 ..." or some such garbage; believe me; I've used such an interface for the last five years. So now you've got to figure out that for instance 27 April is a Thursday by checking which screen column the figure "27" appears in.
Emacspeak has a completely different approach to speech enabling Emacs apps (which as you know are numerous). Emacspeak looks at the program environment and data of the applications, and speaks the information the way it should be spoken. So in the case of the calendar, you hear "Thursday, April 27, 1995".
This means you do not need to look at a display to read news or mail, browse the Web, use Calc, write code or a novel.
In addition to appropriately different voices, Emacspeak provides non-speech auditory cues so you don't lose track of what is going on.
Emacspeak is in `ftp://ftp.cs.cornell.edu/pub/raman/emacspeak' or `//cs.cornell.edu/home/raman/emacspeak'.
Display Ghostscript Project
The Free Software Foundation and Net Community are seeking to raise $11,000 to fund the completion of Display Ghostscript--that is, extending Ghostscript to support the Display Postscript features. So far we have raised $5600, slightly over half of the target.
If you would like to contribute, please send a donation to the Free Software Foundation and state that it is meant for Display Ghostscript.
The GNU Project is looking for volunteers to work on developing a free compatible replacement for the Qt GUI toolkit.
Qt is not free software because its distribution terms are too restrictive. Users do not have the freedom to make changes, or the freedom to release their changes for the community to use--freedoms which are a crucial part of the meaning of free software. Even developing an application program which uses unmodified Qt carries, in some cases, an unacceptable requirement--to notify the owners of Qt.
A secondary consequence of the restrictions on Qt is that linking Qt together with code covered by the GNU GPL violates the GNU GPL, because the combined program is not free software. (It makes no difference whether the linking is done statically or dynamically; either way is creating a combined program which the GPL applies to.)
But Qt is available to run at no charge, and some developers of free applications are starting to make their programs use it.
This a serious problem for developing completely free operating systems. Qt cannot be included in a free operating system, because any system which contains Qt is, by consequence, no longer entirely free software.
If a free application needs Qt in order to run, free operating systems cannot use that application either. We would be legally permitted to use the application itself, and the system could still be free--but including the application without Qt won't be any use.
The only feasible way to make these applications run on free systems is to develop a free substitute for Qt. Hence this project.
To make the goal precise, the new GUI toolkit needs to be mostly compatible with Qt in regard to API. How compatible must it be? Compatible enough that it is easy to make the free applications use it. In other words, this library should be compatible enough to do the job of making the applications run.
This new toolkit does not need to have each and every feature that Qt has. It just needs to have the features that the free applications use and cannot easily do without.
The screen appearance and behavior of the replacement package do not necessarily have to be compatible with Qt. If they are convenient and work well with the applications that use the library, that is good enough.
Please send email to
if you would like to help with this project.
This project will take some time. In the mean time, if you are developing a free application, please do not use Qt. Please use a free GUI toolkit instead.
- Hurd Progress (Also see section What Is the Hurd?) We have made three test releases of the Hurd, the most recent being 0.2. The Hurd is currently much more reliable than previously, and various utilities and file system translators, such as an FTP file system, have been written that take advantage of the Hurd's unique design. One way for people to help out is to compile and run as much third-party free software as they can; in this way we can find bugs and deficiencies with some rapidity. Volunteers with a PC are therefore eagerly sought to get the 0.2 release and compile their favorite Unix programs and games. Daily snapshots of the Hurd sources are now available for those that want to see the latest (non-stable) version; see the Hurd page on the FSF Web site, `//www.gnu.ai.mit.edu', for more information.
- New Source Code CD! (see section July 1997 Source Code CD-ROMs)
We are currently releasing the July 1997 (Edition 10) Source Code CD-ROM.
Once again, it is a two disk set.
It includes several new packages:
vera. On the CD-ROMs are full distributions of X11R6.3, Emacs, GCC, and current versions of all other GNU Software. See section GNU Software, for more about these packages.
- New/Updated Manuals since Last Bulletin (see section GNU Documentation) Since the last bulletin, we have published several updated editions of our manuals (note the price changes): GNU Emacs Manual, revised for GNU Emacs version 20, now $30; Texinfo Manual, for version 3.11 of Texinfo, now $25. We hope to have the following available very soon: GNU Tar Manual, first time in print, freshly reorganized and rewritten, $20; GNU Software for MS-Windows and MS-DOS, a book and CD-ROM set with a variety of GNU software compiled for MS-DOS and Windows 3.1/95/97/NT, $35 ($140 for corporate orders). Watch our Web site, `//www.gnu.ai.mit.edu', for announcements of these publications.
- Fonts freed
A free commercial-quality set of the basic 35 Postscript Type 1 fonts is now finally available. The copyright holder of these fonts, URW++ Design and Development Incorporated, has decided to release them under the GPL. Each font includes
.pfm(Windows printer metrics) files. The fonts are compatible with Adobe Type Manager and with general Type 1 manipulation tools, as well as with Ghostscript and other Postscript language interpreters.
The fonts are available in `ghostscript-fonts-4.0.tar.gz' on the usual FTP sites.
- DDD now works with LessTif (Also see section GNU Software) Release 2.1.1 of DDD, the Data Display Debugger, now works with LessTif, a free Motif clone.
- Give to GNU the United Way! As a 501(c)3 tax-exempt organization, the FSF is eligible to receive United Way funds. When donating to United Way, one can specify that all or part of the donation be directed to the FSF. On the donor form, check the "Specific Requests" box and include the sentence, "Send my gift to the Free Software Foundation, 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110." We especially appreciate the donations from Microsoft matching the United Way donations of their employees. Also see section Donations Translate Into Free Software, and section Cygnus Matches Donations!.
- Tapes and MS-DOS Diskettes No Longer Available from the FSF We no longer offer tapes or MS-DOS diskettes due to very low demand.
- MS-DOS/MS-Windows Book and CD-ROM
This CD-ROM brings ports of GNU software
to MS-DOS and MS-Windows systems.
Most major GNU packages have been ported,
including Emacs, GCC, BASH,
development tools such as GDB and Make,
as well as
gawk, fileutils, textutils, shellutils, diffutils, & findutils. Packages for desktop publishing such as Groff and TeX are also included. Taken together, these programs present a coherent set of tools that will make a typical MS-DOS/MS-Windows system much more powerful for any computer-oriented task. All of the programs include complete on-line documentation as well as typeset and ready-to-print manuals. A book that accompanies the CD-ROM explains how to set up the host system for using the software and reading the documentation.
- The FSF Takes Discover The Free Software Foundation now accepts the Discover card for orders or donations. We also accept the following: Carte Blanche, Diner's Club, JCB, MasterCard, Visa, and American Express. Note that we are charged about 5% of an order's total amount in credit card processing fees; please consider paying by check instead or adding on a 5% donation to make up the difference. We do not recommend that you send credit card numbers to us via email, since we have no way of insuring that the information will remain confidential.
- MULE Merge Complete MULE is the Multi-Lingual Emacs developed by Ken'ichi Handa at the Electrotechnical Lab in Tsukuba, Japan. This code has been merged into Emacs and is included in Emacs 20.
- GPC, the GNU Pascal Compiler
The GNU Pascal Compiler (GPC) is part of
the GNU compiler family, GNU CC or GCC.
It combines a Pascal front end
with the proven GNU compiler backend
for code generation and optimization.
Unlike utilities such as p2c,
this is a true compiler, not just a converter.
Version 2.0 of GPC corresponds to GCC version 126.96.36.199.
The purpose of the GNU Pascal project is
to produce a compiler which:
- combines the clarity of Pascal with powerful tools suitable for real-life programming,
- supports both the Pascal standard and the Extended Pascal standard as defined by ISO, ANSI and IEEE. (ISO 7185:1990, ISO/IEC 10206:1991, ANSI/IEEE 770X3.160-1989)
- supports other Pascal standards (UCSD Pascal, Borland Pascal, Pascal-SC) in so far as this serves the goal of clarity and usability,
- can generate code for and run on any computer for which the GNU C Compiler can generate code and run on.
GUILE 1.2 is released. GNU's Ubiquitous Intelligent Language for Extension is an SCM-based library that can make any ordinary C program extensible. (For SCM info, see "JACAL" in section GNU Software.) Nightly snapshots of the development sources are also available, in `ftp://ftp.red-bean.com/pub/guile/guile-core-snap.tar.gz'.
Also being developed are SCSH-compatible system call & Tk interfaces, a module system, dynamic linking support, & a byte-code interpreter. Support for Emacs Lisp & a more C-like language is coming.
- A New FSF T-shirt! We have a new T-shirt design. See section FSF T-shirt, for the description.
- New free game In August 1995, the action game Abuse by Jonathan Clark was released for the first time. It wasn't free software then--but now, less than two years later, the company Crack dot Com has rereleased it as free software. Abuse was initially developed on Linux-based GNU systems, and we've included it on our our source CD set. Beyond providing the free software community with a game that many people enjoy, and code that could be useful for developing other free games, this demonstrates an important fact about the economic circumstances of computer game development: most non-free games bring their profit in a very short period of time. Therefore, a game company can turn a game into free software fairly soon, with little hardship. Let's hope that other game developers follow this example.
Help the Translation Project
GNU is going international! The Translation Project gets users, translators, & maintainers together, so free software will gradually get to speak many native languages. As of April 1997, we have internationalized 27 packages into 16 languages, using 159 translation files; the translation teams have 422 subscribed members.
To complete this Translation Project, we need many people who like their own language and write it well, and who are also able to synergize with other translators speaking the same language as part of "translation teams".
If you want to start a new team, or want more information on existing teams
or other aspects of this project, write
[email protected]. Also see section GNU Software,
for information about
gettext, the tool the Translation
Project uses to help translators and programmers.
GNU & Other Free Software in Japan
[email protected]) and Nobuyuki Hikichi
[email protected]) continue to volunteer for the GNU Project
in Japan. They translate each issue of this Bulletin into Japanese and
distribute it widely, along with the translation of Version 2 of the GNU
General Public License. This translation of the GPL is authorized by the
FSF and is available by anonymous FTP from
`/pub/gnu/local-fix/GPL2-j'. They are working on a formal
translation of the GNU Library General Public License. They also solicit
donations and offer GNU software consulting.
nepoch (the Japanese version of Epoch) & MULE are available and widely
used in Japan. MULE (the MULtilingual Enhancement of GNU Emacs) can handle
many character sets at once. Its features have been merged into the
principal version of Emacs. See section GNU Software, for more details on MULE.
The FSF does not distribute
nepoch, but MULE is available on the
section July 1997 Source Code CD-ROMs.
FTP it from
sh.wide.ad.jp in `/JAPAN/mule', or
etlport.etl.go.jp in `/pub/mule'.
The Village Center, Inc. prints a Japanese translation (ISBN 4-938704-02-1) of the GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual and puts the Texinfo source on various bulletin boards, and prints each issue of the Japanese GNU's Bulletin. They also publish Nobuyuki & Mieko's Think GNU (ISBN 4-938704-10-2); this may be the first non-FSF copylefted publication in Japan. They also redistribute GNU CD-ROMs at this bookstore:
Shosen Grande 1-3-2 Kanda Jinbo-cho, Chiyoda-ku Tokyo 101, Japan Telephone: 03-3295-0011
Portions of Village Center's profits are donated to the FSF. Their address is:
Village Center, Inc. 3-2 Kanda Jinbo-cho, Chiyoda-ku Tokyo 101, Japan Telephone: 03-3221-3520 URL: `//www.villagecenter.co.jp/' URL: `//www.villagecenter.co.jp/gnu.html' for GNU products info handling by Village Center
Addison-Wesley Publishers Japan Ltd. has printed Japanese translations of the GNU Make Manual (ISBN 4-7952-9627-X), the Gawk Manual (ISBN 4-7952-9672-8), & the Texinfo Manual (ISBN 4-7952-9684-7), & will print the Japanese GNU Emacs Manual 19.34 & Bison Manual this July. Their address is:
Addison-Wesley Publishers Japan Ltd. Nichibou Bldg. 2F 1-2-2 Sarugaku-cho, Chiyoda-ku Tokyo 101, Japan Telephone: 03-3291-4581
The Japanese mailing list to discuss GPL'ed software and hardware
is no longer active.
if you have any questions about it.
Many groups in Japan now distribute GNU software. They include JUG, a PC user group; ASCII, a periodical and book publisher; and the Fujitsu FM Towns users group.
It is easy to place an order directly with the FSF from Japan, thus funding
new software. To get an FSF Order Form written in Japanese, ask
We encourage you to buy our software CDs:
for example, 150 CD-ROM orders at the
corporate rate allow the FSF to hire a programmer for a year to write more
The Research Institute for Advanced Information Technology (AITEC) releases ICOT Free Software (IFS) and other IFS related software to the public. IFS, which pertains to the fields of parallel processing & knowledge processing, was developed at ICOT in the Fifth Generation Computer Project & its Follow-on Project.
Besides IFS, AITEC recently released as free software many software systems developed by numerous research groups through AITEC's research funding program. Through their Web pages, AITEC releases 20 major IFS programs, 80 other IFS programs, and 22 programs developed through AITEC's FY 1996 research funding program. AITEC will soon release new software systems developed in FY 1997.
As of the end of May 1997, over 5,300 people have accessed AITEC's Web pages, and almost 35,000 IFS files have been transferred since their first release in 1992.
For more information, please see URL `//www.icot.or.jp/'.
The ImageSearcher is an object-oriented program to search images by
specifying properties of the image itself, without relying on the
name or attributes of the file. It searches focusing on typical color,
average luminance, nine colors, image extent, center spectra, etc.
It runs on VisualWorks 2.5.1 (Smalltalk). As a
result of the "eMMa Project" research sponsored by IPA and SRA
(written by Atsushi Aoki), the source code and documentation are
distributed under the GPL as free software, and are
available via FTP from host
in the file
Information about the current status of released GNU programs can be found in section GNU Software. Here is some news of future plans.
e-scapeis a graphical Web browser currently in development. We plan to support CSS1, PNG, tables, and frames. XML support and client-side scripting will likely be added eventually.
gss) is the GNU SQL Server, a multiuser relational DBMS. An alpha release is currently available.
- GNU Emacs (For current status, see section GNU Software) Future versions of Emacs will have support for variable-width fonts and inclusion of graphics in a document. Also, perhaps, the ability to save the undo history in a file (which allows you to undo older changes in the history). Our long term plan is to move it in the direction of a WYSIWYG word processor & make it easier for beginners to use.
- GNUstep (Also see "Objective-C Library" in section GNU Software.)
OpenStep is an object-oriented application programming interface
specification being proposed as an open object standard. Since its
there has been much interest in a GNU
implementation, named GNUstep. Work has begun on GNUstep, starting with a
library written in Objective-C. Much remains to be done to bring this
library close to the OpenStep specifications. Volunteers should contact
[email protected]. Also see `//www.gnustep.org/'.
recode(For current status, see section GNU Software) The next
recoderelease should give more flexible control over encodings of charsets, offer MIME conversions, & handle ISO-10646 (Unicode). It will install a library & support files to help work towards internationalizing GNU.
Teak, the GNU desktop interface, is intended to enable users with minimal computer experience to browse the file system, launch programs, & perform file manipulations. Teak is still in the early stages of development, but here are some of the features planned for the first release: view directories sorted by name, date, size, etc., or treat the directory as a field of icons which the user may rearrange within the window; drag-&-drop (edit a file by dragging it into an editor program's window, or print a file by dropping it on a printer icon); & for easy access, you can place icons for frequently-used files or programs directly on the background of your screen.
For the second release, volunteers have offered to enhance Teak to browse FTP sites, tar files, etc. We have designed Teak around GUILE, which will simplify Teak, keep its user interface flexible, & allow easy interaction with other GNU programs. Teak's developer, Jim Blandy, also works on GUILE. Jim has put aside Teak to concentrate on GUILE; after enough progress has been made on GUILE, he will be resuming his work on Teak. Why do we call it Teak? "Because Teak makes a mighty fine desktop."
- C Interpreter
We hope to add interpreter facilities to our compiler and debugger. This
task is partly finished. GCC generates byte code for all supported
languages, but that support is in flux at this time. A new effort to
finish this work has begun. To make this work usable, we need to enhance
GDB to load the byte code dynamically. We would also like support for
compiling just a few selected functions in a file. Due to limited
resources, the FSF cannot fund this. Interested volunteers should contact
- Fortran (For info on
f2c& GCC, see section GNU Software) The GNU Fortran (
g77) front end is stable, but more work is needed to bring its overall packaging, feature set, and performance up to the levels the Fortran community expects. Tasks to be done include: improving documentation and diagnostics; speeding up compilation, especially for large, densely initialized data tables; completing existing support for
INTEGER*8, and similar features; allowing intrinsics in
PARAMETERstatements; and providing debug information on
EQUIVALENCEvariables. We don't know when these things will be done, but hope some will be finished in the coming months. You can speed progress by working on them or by offering funding. A mailing list exists for announcements about
g77. To subscribe, ask
[email protected]. To contact the developer of
g77or get current status, write or finger
- The Dictionary Project
The FSF has a copy of the unabridged Century Dictionary, now in the public domain, and we are planning to put it online. We tried OCR, but it wasn't reliable enough.
Russell Nelson is coordinating the project. Volunteers have entered close to fifty pages so far, but the project needs more help; to volunteer, send mail to
[email protected]eduor contact the FSF.
This project provides a way for people without programming skills or money to contribute to the GNU Project.
Free Software Support
The Free Software Foundation does not provide technical support. Our mission is developing software, because that is the most time-efficient way to increase what free software can do. We leave it to others to earn a living providing support. We see programmers as providing a service, much as doctors and lawyers do now; both medical and legal knowledge are freely redistributable, but their practitioners charge for service.
The GNU Service Directory is a list of people who offer support & other consulting services. It is `/pub/gnu/GNUinfo/SERVICE' on a GNU FTP host (see section How to Get GNU Software), on the World Wide Web at URL `//www.gnu.ai.mit.edu/prep/service.html', in the file `etc/SERVICE' in the Emacs distribution, & the file `SERVICE' in the GCC distribution. Contact us to get it or to be listed in it. Service providers who share their income with the FSF are listed in section Help from Free Software Companies.
If you find a deficiency in any GNU software, we want to know. We have
many Internet mailing lists for bug reports, announcements, & questions.
They are also gatewayed into USENET news as our
Both are listed in file
`/pub/gnu/GNUinfo/MAILINGLISTS' on a GNU FTP host
(see section How to Get GNU Software),
in the file `etc/MAILINGLISTS' in the Emacs distribution,
at URL `//www.gnu.ai.mit.edu/prep/mailinglists.html'
or request it from either address on
the top menu.
When we receive a bug report, we usually try to fix the problem. While our bug fixes may seem like individual assistance, they are not; they are part of preparing a new improved version that helps all users. We may send you a patch for a bug so that you can help us test the fix and ensure its quality. If your bug report does not evoke a solution from us, you may still get one from another user on our bug report mailing lists. Otherwise, use the Service Directory.
Please do not ask us to help you install software or learn how to use it--but do tell us how an installation script fails or where documentation is unclear.
When choosing a service provider, ask those you are considering how much they do to assist free software development, e.g., by contributing money to free software development or by writing free software improvements themselves for general use. By basing your decision partially on this factor, you can encourage those who profit from free software to contribute to its growth.
All our software is available via FTP; see section How to Get GNU Software. We also offer section CD-ROMs, and printed section GNU Documentation, which includes manuals and reference cards. In the articles describing the contents of each medium, the version number listed after each program name was current when we published this Bulletin. When you order a newer CD-ROM, some of the programs may be newer and therefore the version number higher. See section Free Software Foundation Order Form, for ordering information.
Some of the contents of our FTP distributions are compressed. We
have software on our FTP sites to uncompress these files. Due to
patent troubles with
compress, we use another compression program,
You may need to build GNU
make before you build our other software.
make utility at all and some native
VPATH feature essential for using the GNU configure system
to its full extent. The GNU
make sources have a shell script to
make itself on such systems.
We welcome all bug reports and enhancements sent to the appropriate electronic mailing list (see section Free Software Support).
Configuring GNU Software
We are using Autoconf, a uniform scheme for configuring GNU software packages in order to compile them (see "Autoconf" and "Automake" below, in this article). The goal is to have all GNU software support the same alternatives for naming machine and system types.
Ultimately, it will be possible to configure and build the entire system all at once, eliminating the need to configure each individual package separately.
You can also specify both the host and target system to build cross-compilation tools. Most GNU programs now use Autoconf-generated configure scripts.
GNU Software Now Available
For future programs and features, see section Forthcoming GNUs.
Key to cross reference:
BinCD January 1997 Binaries CD-ROM SrcCD July 1997 Source CD-ROMs
[FSFman] shows that we sell a manual for that package. [FSFrc] shows we sell a reference card for that package. To order them, section Free Software Foundation Order Form. See section GNU Documentation, for more information on the manuals. Source code for each manual or reference card is included with each package.
abuseAlso see section GNUs Flashes (SrcCD) The recently-freed program
abuseis a dark, side-scrolling game with Robotron-esque controls: you control your movement with the keyboard and fire & aim with the mouse. You can get more info at `//crack.com/games/abuse'.
- acct (SrcCD)
acct is a system accounting package.
It includes the programs
ac(summariize login accounting),
accton(turn accounting on or off),
last(show who has logged in recently),
lastcomm(show which commands have been used),
sa(summarize process accounting),
utmpfile in human-readable format), &
pacctfile in human-readable format).
acmis a LAN-oriented, multiplayer, aerial combat simulation that runs under the X Window System. Players engage in air to air combat against one another using heat seeking missiles and cannons. We are working on a more accurate simulation of real airplane flight characteristics.
- aegis (SrcCD) Aegis is a transaction-based software configuration management system. It provides a framework within which a team of developers may work on many changes to a program concurrently, and Aegis coordinates integrating these changes back into the master source of the program, with as little disruption as possible.
- Apache Also see `//www.apache.org/' (SrcCD) Apache is an HTTP server designed as a successor to the NCSA family of Web servers. It adds a significant amount of new functionality, has an extensive API for modular enhancements, is extremely flexible without compromising speed, and has an active development group and user community.
- Autoconf (SrcCD)
Autoconf produces shell scripts which automatically configure source code
packages. These scripts adapt the packages to many kinds of Unix-like
systems without manual user intervention. Autoconf creates a script for a
package from a template file which lists the operating system features
which the package can use, in the form of
m4macro calls. Autoconf requires GNU
m4to operate, but the resulting configure scripts it generates do not.
- Automake (SrcCD) Automake is a tool for generating `Makefile.in' files for use with Autoconf. The generated makefiles are compliant with GNU Makefile standards.
- BASH (SrcCD)
GNU's shell, BASH (Bourne Again SHell), is compatible with the
shand offers many extensions found in
ksh. BASH has job control,
csh-style command history, command-line editing (with Emacs and
vimodes built-in), and the ability to rebind keys via the
readlinelibrary. BASH conforms to the POSIX 1003.2-1992 standard.
- bc (SrcCD)
bcis an interactive algebraic language with arbitrary precision numbers. GNU
bcfollows the POSIX 1003.2-1992 standard with several extensions, including multi-character variable names, an
elsestatement, and full Boolean expressions. The RPN calculator
dcis now distributed as part of the same package, but GNU
bcis not implemented as a
- BFD (BinCD, SrcCD)
The Binary File Descriptor library allows a program which operates on object files (e.g.,
ldor GDB) to support many different formats in a clean way. BFD provides a portable interface, so that only BFD needs to know the details of a particular format. One result is that all programs using BFD will support formats such as a.out, COFF, and ELF. BFD comes with Texinfo source for a manual (not yet published on paper).
At present, BFD is not distributed separately; it is included with packages that use it.
- Binutils (BinCD, SrcCD)
Binutils includes these programs:
strip. Binutils version 2 uses the BFD library. The GNU assembler,
gas, supports the a29k, Alpha, ARM, D10V, H8/300, H8/500, HP-PA, i386, i960, M32R, m68k, m88k, MIPS, Matsushita 10200 and 10300, NS32K, PowerPC, RS/6000, SH, SPARC, Tahoe, Vax, and Z8000 CPUs, and attempts to be compatible with many other assemblers for Unix and embedded systems. It can produce mixed C and assembly listings, and includes a macro facility similar to that in some other assemblers. GNU's linker,
ld, supports shared libraries on many systems, emits source-line numbered error messages for multiply-defined symbols and undefined references, and interprets a superset of AT&T's Linker Command Language, which gives control over where segments are placed in memory.
objdumpcan disassemble code for most of the CPUs listed above, and can display other data (e.g., symbols and relocations) from any file format read by BFD.
- Bison (BinCD, SrcCD) [FSFman, FSFrc]
Bison is an upwardly compatible replacement for the parser generator
yacc. Texinfo source for the Bison Manual and reference card are included.
- C Library (
glibc) (BinCD, SrcCD) [FSFman] The GNU C library supports ISO C-1989, ISO C/amendment 1-1995, POSIX 1003.1-1990, POSIX 1003.1b-1993, POSIX 1003.1c-1995 (when the underlying system permits), & most of the functions in POSIX 1003.2-1992. It is nearly compliant with the extended XPG4.2 specification which guarantees upward compatibility with 4.4BSD & many System V functions. When used with the GNU Hurd, the C Library performs many functions of the Unix system calls directly. Mike Haertel has written a fast
mallocwhich wastes less memory than the old GNU version. GNU
stdiolets you define new kinds of streams, just by writing a few C functions. Two methods for handling translated messages help writing internationalized programs & the user can adopt the environment the program runs in to conform with local conventions. Extended
getoptfunctions are already used to parse options, including long options, in many GNU utilities. The name lookup functions now are modularized which makes it easier to select the service which is needed for the specific database & the document interface makes it easy to add new services. Texinfo source for the GNU C Library Reference Manual is included (see section GNU Documentation). Previous versions of the GNU C library ran on a large number of systems. The architecture-dependent parts of the C library have not been updated since development on version 2.0 started, so today it runs out of the box only on GNU/Hurd (all platforms GNU/Hurd also runs on) & GNU/Linux (ix86, Alpha, m68k, MIPS, Sparc, PowerPC; work is in progress for ARM). Other architectures will become available again as soon as somebody does the port.
- C++ Library (
libg++) (BinCD, SrcCD)
The GNU C++ library (traditionally called
libg++) includes libstdc++, which implements the library facilities defined by the forthcoming ISO C++ standard. This includes strings, iostream, and various container classes. All of this is templatized.
The package also contains the older libg++ library for backward compatibility, but new programs should avoid using it.
- Calc (SrcCD) [FSFman, FSFrc]
Calc (written by Dave Gillespie in Emacs Lisp) is an extensible, advanced
desk calculator & mathematical tool that runs as part of GNU Emacs. You
can use Calc as a simple four-function calculator, but it has many
more features including: choice of algebraic or RPN (stack-based) entry;
logarithmic, trigonometric, & financial functions; arbitrary precision;
complex numbers; vectors; matrices; dates; times; infinities; sets;
algebraic simplification; & differentiation & integration.
It outputs to
gnuplot, & comes with source for a manual & reference card (see section GNU Documentation).
cfengineis used to maintain site-wide configuration of a heterogeneous Unix network using a simple high level language. Its appearance is similar to
rdist, but allows many more operations to be performed automatically. See Mark Burgess, "A Site Configuration Engine", Computing Systems, Vol. 8, No. 3 (ask
[email protected]how to get a copy).
- Chess (SrcCD)
GNU Chess enables you to play a game of chess with a computer instead of a person. It is useful to practice with when there are significant spare cpu cycles and a real person is unavailable.
The program offers a plain terminal interface, one using curses, and a reasonable X Windows interface
xboard. Best results are obtained by compiling with GNU C.
Improvements this past year are in the Windows-compatible version, mostly bugfixes.
Stuart Cracraft started the GNU mascot back in the mid-1980's. John Stanback (and innumerable contributors) are responsible for GNU's brain development and its fair play. Acknowledgements for the past year's work are due Conor McCarthy.
Send bugs to
[email protected]& general comments to
[email protected]. Visit the author's Web site at `//www.earthlink.net/~cracraft/index.html'. Play GNU Chess on the Web at `//www.delorie.com/game-room/chess'.
- CLISP (SrcCD) CLISP is a Common Lisp implementation by Bruno Haible & Michael Stoll. It mostly supports the Lisp described by Common LISP: The Language (2nd edition) & the ANSI Common Lisp standard. CLISP includes an interpreter, a byte-compiler, a large subset of CLOS & a foreign language interface. The user interface language (English, German, French) can be chosen at run time. An X11 API is available through CLX & Garnet. CLISP needs only 2 MB of memory & runs on all kinds of Unix systems & on many microcomputers (including MS-DOS systems, OS/2, Windows NT, Windows 95, Amiga 500--4000, & Acorn RISC PC). See also item "Common Lisp", which describes GCL, a complete Common Lisp implementation with compiler.
- CLX (SrcCD) CLX is an X Window interface library for GCL. This is separate from the built-in TK interface.
- Common Lisp (
GNU Common Lisp (GCL, formerly known as Kyoto Common Lisp) is a compiler & interpreter for Common Lisp. GCL is very portable & extremely efficient on a wide class of applications, & compares favorably in performance with commercial Lisps on several large theorem--prover & symbolic algebra systems. GCL supports the CLtL1 specification but is moving towards the proposed ANSI standard.
GCL compiles to C & then uses the native optimizing C compiler (e.g., GCC). A function with a fixed number of args & one value turns into a C function of the same number of args, returning one value--so GCL is maximally efficient on such calls. Its conservative garbage collector gives great freedom to the C compiler to put Lisp values in registers. It has a source level Lisp debugger for interpreted code & displays source code in an Emacs window. Its profiler (based on the C profiling tools) counts function calls & the time spent in each function.
There is now a built-in interface to the Tk widget system. It runs in a separate process, so users may monitor progress on Lisp computations or interact with running computations via a windowing interface.
There is also an Xlib interface via C (xgcl-2). CLX runs with GCL, as does PCL (see "PCL" later in this article).
GCL version 2.2.2 is released under the GNU Library General Public License.
- cook (SrcCD)
Cook is a tool for constructing files,
and maintaining referential integrity between files.
It is given a set of files to create,
and recipes of how to create and maintain them.
In any non-trivial program there will be prerequisites
to performing the actions necessary to creating any file,
such as include files.
cookprogram provides a mechanism to define these. Some features which distinguish Cook include a strong procedural description language, and fingerprints to supplement file modification time stamps. There is also a
make2cookutility included to ease transition.
cpiois an archive program with all the features of SVR4
cpio, including support for the final POSIX 1003.1 ustar standard.
mt, a program to position magnetic tapes, is included with
- CVS (SrcCD)
CVS is a version control system (like RCS or SCCS) which allows you to
keep old versions of files (usually source code), keep a log of who,
when, and why changes occurred, etc. It handles multiple developers,
multiple directories, triggers to enable/log/control various operations,
and can work over a wide area network. It does not handle build
management or bug-tracking; these are handled by
makeand GNATS, respectively.
cxrefis a program that will produce documentation (in LaTeX or HTML) including cross-references from C program source code. It has been designed to work with ANSI C, incorporating K&R, and most popular GNU extensions. The documentation for the subject program is produced from comments in the code that are appropriately formatted. The cross referencing comes from the code itself and requires no extra work.
- DDD (SrcCD) The Data Display Debugger (DDD) is a common graphical user interface to GDB, DBX, and XDB, the popular Unix debuggers. DDD provides a graphical data display where complex data structures can be explored incrementally and interactively. DDD has been designed to compete with well-known commercial debuggers; as of release 2.1.1, DDD also compiles and runs with LessTif, a free Motif clone, without loss of functionality. For more details, see the DDD WWW page at `//www.cs.tu-bs.de/softech/ddd/'.
- DejaGnu (SrcCD)
DejaGnu is a framework to test programs with a single front end for all tests. DejaGnu's flexibility & consistency makes it easy to write tests. DejaGnu will also work with remote hosts and embedded systems.
DejaGnu comes with
expect, which runs scripts to conduct dialogs with programs.
- Diffutils (SrcCD)
diffcompares files showing line-by-line changes in several flexible formats. It is much faster than traditional Unix versions. The Diffutils package has
cmp. Future plans include support for internationalization (e.g., error messages in Chinese) & some non-Unix PC environments, & a library interface that can be used by other free software.
- DJGPP Also see "GCC" below (BinCD)
DJ Delorie has ported GCC/G++ to i386s running DOS. DJGPP has a 32-bit i386 DOS extender with a symbolic debugger, development libraries, & ports of Bison,
flex, & Binutils. Full source code is provided. It needs at least 5MB of hard disk space to install & 512K of RAM to use. It supports SVGA (up to 1024x768), XMS & VDISK memory allocation,
himem.sys, VCPI (e.g., QEMM, DESQview, & 386MAX), & DPMI (e.g., Windows 3.x, OS/2, QEMM, & QDPMI). Version 2 was released in Feb. 1996, & needs a DPMI environment; a free DPMI server is included.
WWW at `//www.delorie.com/djgpp/' or FTP from
ftp.simtel.netin `/pub/simtelnet/gnu/djgpp/' (or a SimTel mirror site).
[email protected], to join a DJGPP users mailing list.
dldis a dynamic linker written by W. Wilson Ho. Linking your program with the
dldlibrary allows you to dynamically load object files into the running binary.
dldsupports a.out object types on the following platforms: Convex C-Series (BSD), i386/i486/Pentium (GNU/Linux), Sequent Symmetry i386 (Dynix 3), Sun-3 (SunOS 3 & 4), Sun-4 (SunOS 4), & VAX (Ultrix).
doschk(SrcCD) This program is a utility to help software developers ensure that their source file names are distinguishable on System V platforms with 14-character filenames and on MS-DOS systems with 8+3 character filenames.
edis the standard text editor. It is line-oriented and can be used interactively or in scripts.
- Elib (SrcCD) Elib is a small library of Emacs Lisp functions, including routines for using AVL trees and doubly-linked lists.
- Elisp archive (SrcCD)
This is a snapshot of Ohio State's GNU Emacs Lisp FTP Archive. FTP it from
- Emacs Also see section GNUs Flashes [FSFman(s), FSFrc] In 1975, Richard Stallman developed the first Emacs, an extensible, customizable real-time display editor & computing environment. GNU Emacs is his second implementation. It offers true Lisp--smoothly integrated into the editor--for writing extensions & provides an interface to the X Window System. It runs on Unix, MS-DOS, & Windows NT or 95. In addition to its powerful native command set, Emacs can emulate the editors vi & EDT (DEC's VMS editor). Emacs has many other features which make it a full computing support environment. Source for the GNU Emacs Manual & a reference card comes with the software. Sources for the GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual, and Programming in Emacs Lisp: An Introduction are distributed in separate packages. See section GNU Documentation.
- Emacs 20 (SrcCD) [FSFman(s), FSFrc] Emacs 20.1 was just released recently. Its main new features include support for many languages and many character codes (the MULE facility) and a new convenient customization feature. The text-filling commands handle indented and bulleted paragraphs conveniently; there are new help facilities for looking up documentation about functions and symbols in various languages. A new method of file-locking works even when using NFS. Some dired commands have been made more systematic. We believe Emacs 20 operates on the same systems as Emacs 19, but we do not have confirmation for all of them.
- Emacs 19 (SrcCD) [FSFman(s), FSFrc] Emacs 19 works with character-only terminals & with the X Window System (with or without an X toolkit). It also runs on MS-DOS, MS Windows, and with multiple-window support on MS Windows 95/NT. Emacs 19 works on: Acorn RISC (RISCiX); Alliant FX/2800 (BSD); Alpha (OSF/1 or GNU/Linux); Apollo (DomainOS); Bull DPX/2 2nn & 3nn (SysV.3) & sps7 (SysV.2); Clipper; Convex (BSD); Cubix QBx (SysV); Data General Aviion (DGUX); DEC MIPS (Ultrix 4.2, OSF/1, not VMS); Elxsi 6400 (SysV); Gould Power Node & NP1 (4.2 & 4.3BSD); Harris Night Hawk 1200, 3000, 4000 & 5000 (cxux); Harris Night Hawk Power PC (powerunix); Honeywell XPS100 (SysV); HP 9000 series 200, 300, 700, 800 (but not 500) (4.3BSD; HP-UX 7, 8, 9; NextStep); Intel i386/i486/Pentium (GNU/Hurd, GNU/Linux, 386BSD, AIX, BSDI/386, FreeBSD, Esix, ISC, MS-DOS, NetBSD, SCO3.2v4, Solaris, SysV, Xenix, WindowsNT, Windows95); IBM RS/6000 (AIX 3.2) & RT/PC (AIX, BSD); Motorola Delta 147 & 187 (SysV.3, SysV.4, m88kbcs); National Semiconductor 32K (Genix); NeXT (BSD, Mach 2 w/ NeXTStep 3.0); Paragon (OSF/1); Prime EXL (SysV); Pyramid (BSD); Sequent Symmetry (BSD, ptx); Siemens RM400 & RM600 (SysV); SGI Iris 4D (Irix 4.x & 5.x); Sony News/RISC (NewsOS); Stardent i860 (SysV); Sun 3 & 4, SPARC 1, 1+, 2, 10, Classic (SunOS 4.0, 4.1, Solaris 2.0--2.3); Tadpole 68k (SysV); Tektronix XD88 (SysV.3) & 4300 (BSD); & Titan P2 & P3 (SysV).
- Emacs 18 (SrcCD) [FSFrc] Emacs 18 is several years old. We no longer maintain it, but still distribute it for those using platforms which Emacs 19 does not support.
enscriptis an upwardly-compatible replacement for the Adobe
enscriptprogram. It formats ASCII files (outputting in Postscript) and stores generated output to a file or sends it directly to the printer.
esis an extensible shell (based on
rc) with first-class functions, lexical scope, exceptions, and rich return values (i.e., functions can return values other than just numbers).
es's extensibility comes from the ability to modify and extend the shell's built-in services, such as path searching and redirection. Like
rc, it is great for both interactive use and scripting, particularly since its quoting rules are much less baroque than the C and Bourne shells.
- Exim (SrcCD) Exim is a new Internet mail transfer agent, similar in style to Smail 3. It can handle relatively high volume mail systems, header rewriting, control over which hosts/nets may use it as a relay, blocking of unwanted mail from specified hosts/nets/senders, and multiple local domains on one mail host ("virtual domains") with several options for the way these are handled.
f2cAlso see "Fortran" below & in section Forthcoming GNUs. (SrcCD)
f2cconverts Fortran-77 source into C or C++, which can be compiled with GCC or G++. Get bug fixes by FTP from site
netlib.bell-labs.comor by email from
[email protected]. For a summary, see the file `/netlib/f2c/readme.gz'.
ffcallis a C library for implementing foreign function calls in embedded interpreters by Bill Triggs and Bruno Haible. It allows C functions with arbitrary argument lists and return types to be called or emulated (callbacks).
- Fileutils (SrcCD)
The Fileutils are:
- Findutils (SrcCD)
findis frequently used both interactively and in shell scripts to find files which match certain criteria and perform arbitrary operations on them. Also included are
locate, which scans a database for file names that match a pattern, and
xargs, which applies a command to a list of files.
- Finger (SrcCD) GNU Finger has more features than other finger programs. For sites with many hosts, a single host may be designated as the finger server host and other hosts at that site configured as finger clients. The server host collects information about who is logged in on the clients. To finger a user at a GNU Finger site, a query to any of its client hosts gets useful information. GNU Finger supports many customization features, including user output filters and site-programmable output for special target names.
flex(BinCD, SrcCD) [FSFman, FSFrc]
flexis a replacement for the
flexwas written by Vern Paxson of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and generates far more efficient scanners than
lexdoes. Sources for the Flex Manual and reference card are included (see section GNU Documentation).
- Fontutils (SrcCD)
convert between font formats,
create fonts for use with Ghostscript or TeX (starting with a scanned
type image & converting the bitmaps to outlines), etc. It includes:
- Fortran (
g77) Also see section Forthcoming GNUs (BinCD, SrcCD) GNU Fortran (
g77), developed by Craig Burley, is available for public beta testing on the Internet. For now,
g77produces code that is mostly object-compatible with
f2c& uses the same run-time library (
gawkis upwardly compatible with the latest POSIX specification of
awk. It also provides several useful extensions not found in other
awkimplementations. Texinfo source for the The GNU Awk User's Guide comes with the software (see section GNU Documentation).
gcalis a program for printing calendars. It displays different styled calendar sheets, eternal holiday lists, and fixed date warning lists.
- GCC (BinCD, SrcCD) [FSFman]
Version 2 of the GNU C Compiler supports the languages C, C++, and Objective-C; the source file name suffix or a compiler option selects the language. (Also see "GNAT" later in this article for Ada language supports.) Objective-C support was donated by NeXT. The runtime support needed to run Objective-C programs is now distributed with GCC. (This does not include any Objective-C classes aside from
object, but see "GNUstep" in section Forthcoming GNUs.) G++ seeks to be compliant with the ANSI C++ language standard.
GCC is a fairly portable optimizing compiler which performs many optimizations. They include: automatic register allocation, common sub-expression elimination (CSE) (including a certain amount of CSE between basic blocks -- though not all the supported machine descriptions provide for scheduling or delay slots), invariant code motion from loops, induction variable optimizations, constant propagation, copy propagation, delayed popping of function call arguments, tail recursion elimination, integration of inline functions & frame pointer elimination, instruction scheduling, loop unrolling, filling of delay slots, leaf function optimization, optimized multiplication by constants, the ability to assign attributes to instructions, & many local optimizations automatically deduced from the machine description. GCC can open-code most arithmetic on 64-bit values (type
long long int). It supports extended floating point (type
long double) on the 68k; other machines will follow. GCC supports full ANSI C, traditional C, & GNU C extensions (including: nested functions support, nonlocal gotos, & taking the address of a label).
GCC can generate a.out, COFF, ELF, & OSF-Rose files when used with a suitable assembler. It can produce debugging information in these formats: BSD stabs, COFF, ECOFF, ECOFF with stabs, & DWARF.
GCC generates code for many CPUs, including the a29k, Alpha, ARM, AT&T, DSP1610, Clipper, Convex cN, Elxsi, Fujitsu Gmicro, i370, i860, i960, MIL-STD-1750a, MIPS, ns32k, PDP-11, Pyramid, ROMP, RS/6000, SH, SPUR, Tahoe, VAX, & we32k.
Position-independent code is generated for the Clipper, Hitachi H8/300, HP--PA (1.0 & 1.1), i386/i486/Pentium, m68k, m88k, SPARC, & SPARClite.
Operating systems supported include: GNU/Hurd, GNU/Linux, ACIS, AIX, AOS, BSD, Clix, Concentrix, Ctix, DG/UX, Dynix, FreeBSD, Genix, HP-UX, Irix, ISC, Luna, LynxOS, Minix, NetBSD, NewsOS, NeXTStep, OS/2, OSF, OSF-Rose, RISCOS, SCO, Solaris 2, SunOS 4, System/370, SysV, Ultrix, Unos, VMS, & Windows/NT.
Using the configuration scheme for GCC, building a cross-compiler is as easy as building a native compiler.
Texinfo source for the Using and Porting GNU CC manual is included with GCC (see section GNU Documentation).
- GDB (BinCD, SrcCD) [FSFman, FSFrc]
GDB, the GNU DeBugger, is a source-level debugger for C, C++, & Fortran. It provides partial support for Modula-2 & Chill.
GDB can debug both C & C++, & will work with executables made by many different compilers; but, C++ debugging will have some limitations if you do not use GCC. GDB has a command line user interface, and Emacs has GDB mode as an interface. Two X interfaces (not distributed or maintained by the FSF) are:
gdbtk(FTP it from
ftp.cygnus.comin directory `/pub/gdb'); and
xxgdb(FTP it from
ftp.x.orgin directory `/contrib/utilities'). Executable files and symbol tables are read via the BFD library, which allows a single copy of GDB to debug programs with multiple object file formats (e.g., a.out, COFF, ELF). Other features include a rich command language, remote debugging over serial lines or TCP/IP, and watchpoints (breakpoints triggered when the value of an expression changes). GDB uses a standard remote interface to a simulator library which includes simulators for the ARM, Hitachi H8/300, Hitachi SH, & PowerPC. GDB can perform cross-debugging. To say that GDB targets a platform means it can perform native or cross-debugging for it. To say that GDB can host a given platform means that it can be built on it, but cannot necessarily debug native programs.
- target & host: Amiga 3000 (AmigaOS, Amix, NetBSD), DEC Alpha (OSF/1), DECstation 3100 & 5000 (Ultrix), HP 9000/300 (BSD, HP-UX), HP 9000/700 (HP-UX 9, 10), i386/i486/Pentium (GNU/Hurd, GNU/Linux, BSD, FreeBSD, LynxOS, NetBSD, SCO, Windows NT), IBM RS/6000 (AIX 3.x, AIX 4.x, LynxOS), Motorola Delta m88k (System V, CX/UX), Motorola m68k MVME-167 (LynxOS), NCR 3000 (SVR4), PC532 (NetBSD), PowerPC (AIX 4.x, MacOS, Windows NT), SGI (Irix V3, V4, V5), SONY News (NewsOS 3.x), SPARC (LynxOS, NetBSD, Solaris 2.x, & SunOS 4.1), & Sun-3 (SunOS 4.1).
- target, but not host: AMD 29000, ARM (RDP), Fujitsu SPARClite, Hitachi H8/300, Hitachi SH (CMON, SH3, E7000), HP PA Pro (Winbond, Oki), i960 (MON960, Nindy, VxWorks), m68k/m68332 (CPU32BUG, EST, ROM68K, VxWorks), Matra Sparclet, MIPS (IDT, PMON, VxWorks), PowerPC (PPCBug), & Z8000.
- host, but not target: HP/Apollo 68k (BSD), IBM RT/PC (AIX), & m68k Apple Macintosh (MacOS).
gdbmis the GNU replacement for the traditional
ndbmlibraries. It implements a database using quick lookup by hashing.
gdbmdoes not ordinarily make sparse files (unlike its Unix and BSD counterparts).
- Generic NQS (SrcCD) Generic NQS is a network queuing system for spreading batch jobs across a network of machines. It is designed to be simple to install on a heterogeneous network of machines, and has optimizations for running on the high end, symmetric multiprocessing servers that are currently on the market. It is available for many more Unix variants than any other comparable product, and inter-operates with other NQS systems, including Cray's NQE.
geomviewSee `//www.geom.umn.edu/software/geomview' (SrcCD)
geomviewis an interactive geometry viewing program, for Unix systems with Motif, using X, GL, or OpenGL graphics. It allows multiple independently controllable objects and cameras. External programs may drive desired aspects of the viewer, e.g. loading changing geometry or controlling motion, while allowing interactive mouse-and-GUI control of everything else. Controllable features include motion, appearance (wireframe, shading, lighting and material properties), mouse-based selection, snapshoting (PPM or SGI image, Postscript, and RenderMan formats), display in hyperbolic and spherical spaces, and projection from higher dimensions. Includes converters to display Mathematica and Maple 3-D graphics, and limited conversion to/from VRML.
gettextAlso see section Help the Translation Project (SrcCD) The GNU
gettexttool set has everything maintainers need to internationalize a package's user messages. Once a package has been internationalized,
gettext's many tools help translators localize messages to their native language and automate handling the translation files.
gforthis a fast, portable implementation of the ANS Forth language.
- Ghostscript (SrcCD)
Ghostscript is an interpreter for the Postscript and PDF graphics languages.
The current version of GNU Ghostscript, 3.53, includes a Postscript Level 2 interpreter and a PDF 1.1 interpreter (except for encryption). Significant new features include the ability to convert PDF to Postscript. Ghostscript executes commands in the Postscript and PDF languages by writing directly to a printer, drawing on an X window, or writing to files for printing later or manipulating with other graphics programs.
Ghostscript includes a C-callable graphics library (for client programs that do not want to deal with the Postscript language). It also runs on MS-DOS, MS Windows, OS/2, OpenVMS, and Mac OS (native on both 68K and PowerPC) (but please do not ask the FSF staff any questions about this; we do not use these operating systems).
- Ghostview (SrcCD)
[email protected], created Ghostview, a previewer for multi-page files with an X Window interface. Ghostview & Ghostscript work together; Ghostview creates a viewing window & Ghostscript draws in it.
- GIT (SrcCD) The GNU Interactive Tools package includes: an extensible file system browser, an ASCII/hex file viewer, a process viewer/killer, & other related utilities & shell scripts. It can be used to increase the speed & efficiency of many daily tasks, such as copying & moving files & directories, invoking editors, compressing/uncompressing files, creating & expanding archives, compiling programs, sending mail, etc. It looks nice, has colors (if the standard ANSI color sequences are supported), & is user-friendly.
- gmp (SrcCD)
GNU mp is a library for arithmetic on arbitrary precision integers, rational numbers, and floating-point numbers. It has a rich set of functions with a regular interface.
A major new release, version 2, came out in Spring '96. Compared to previous versions, it is much faster, contains lots of new functions, & has support for arbitrary precision floating-point numbers.
- GN (SrcCD) GN is a gopher/HTTP server.
- Gnans (SrcCD) Gnans is a program (and language) for the numerical study of deterministic and stochastic dynamical systems. The dynamical systems may evolve in continuous or discrete time. Gnans has graphical & command line interfaces.
- GNAT: The GNU Ada Translator (SrcCD)
GNAT, a front end for the entire Ada 95 language, including all special needs
annexes, is available via anonymous FTP from
cs.nyu.eduand various mirror sites in `/pub/gnat'. SGI, DEC, and Siemens Nixdorf have chosen GNU Ada 95 as the Ada compiler for some of their systems. GNAT is maintained by Ada Core Technologies. For more information, see `//www.gnat.com'.
- GNATS (SrcCD) GNATS, GNats: A Tracking System, is a bug-tracking system. It is based upon the paradigm of a central site or organization which receives problem reports and negotiates their resolution by electronic mail. Although it has been used primarily as a software bug-tracking system so far, it is sufficiently generalized that it could be used for handling system administration issues, project management, or any number of other applications.
- GnuGo (SrcCD) GnuGo plays the game of Go. It is not yet very sophisticated.
- GNUMATH (
gnussl) (SrcCD) GNUMATH is a library (
gnussl) that simplifies scientific programming in C & C++. Its focus is on problems that can be solved by a straight-forward application of numerical linear algebra. It also handles plotting. It is in beta release; it is expected to grow more versatile & offer a wider scope in time.
gnuplotis an interactive program for plotting mathematical expressions and data. It plots both curves (2 dimensions) & surfaces (3 dimensions). It was neither written nor named for the GNU Project; the name is a coincidence. Various GNU programs use
gnuservis an enhanced version of Emacs'
emacsclientprogram. It lets the user direct a running Emacs to edit files or evaluate arbitrary Emacs Lisp constructs from another process.
gpcAlso see section GNUs Flashes (SrcCD)
gpcis the GNU Pascal Compiler.
- grep (SrcCD)
This package has GNU
fgrep, which find lines that match entered patterns. They are much faster than the traditional Unix versions.
- Groff (SrcCD)
Groff is a document formatting system based on a device-independent version
troff, & includes:
mmmacros; & drivers for Postscript, TeX
dviformat, the LaserJet 4 series of printers, and typewriter-like devices. Groff's
mmmacro package is almost compatible with the DWB
mmmacros with several extensions. Also included is a modified version of the Berkeley
memacros and an enhanced version of the X11
xditviewpreviewer. Written in C++, these programs can be compiled with GNU C++ Version 2.7.2 or later. Groff users are encouraged to contribute enhancements. Most needed are complete Texinfo documentation, a
picpreprocessor for typesetting graphs), a page-makeup postprocessor similar to
pm(see Computing Systems, Vol. 2, No. 2; ask
[email protected]how to get a copy), and an ASCII output class for
picwith Texinfo. Questions and bug reports from users who have read the documentation provided with Groff can be sent to
guavacis a new free compiler for the Java language.
- GUILE Also see section GNUs Flashes (SrcCD) GUILE is GNU's Ubiquitous Intelligent Language for Extension, an interpreter for the Scheme programming language, packaged as a library that you can link into your programs to make them extensible.
gzipcan expand LZW-compressed files but uses another, unpatented algorithm for compression which generally produces better results. It also expands files compressed with System V's
hello(SrcCD) The GNU
helloprogram produces a familiar, friendly greeting. It allows non-programmers to use a classic computer science tool which would otherwise be unavailable to them. Because it is protected by the GNU General Public License, users are free to share and change it.
hellois also a good example of a program that meets the GNU coding standards. Like any truly useful program,
hellocontains a built-in mail reader.
hp2xxreads HP-GL files, decomposes all drawing commands into elementary vectors, and converts them into a variety of vector and raster output formats. It is also an HP-GL previewer. Currently supported vector formats include encapsulated Postscript, Uniplex RGIP, Metafont, various special TeX-related formats, and simplified HP-GL (line drawing only) for imports. Raster formats supported include IMG, PBM, PCX, & HP-PCL (including Deskjet & DJ5xxC support). Previewers work under X11 (Unix), OS/2 (PM & full screen), & MS-DOS (SVGA, VGA, & HGC).
- HylaFAX Also see `//www.vix.com/hylafax/' (SrcCD) HylaFAX (once named FlexFAX) is a facsimile system for Unix systems. It supports sending, receiving, & polled retrieval of facsimile, as well as transparent shared data use of the modem.
- Hyperbole (SrcCD) Hyperbole, written by Bob Weiner in Emacs Lisp, is an open, efficient, programmable information management, autonumbered outliner, & hypertext system, intended for everyday work on any platform Emacs runs on.
- ID Utils (SrcCD) ID Utils is a package of simple, fast, high-capacity, language-independent tools that index program identifiers, literal numbers, or words of human-readable text. Queries can be issued from the command-line, or from within Emacs, serving as an augmented tags facility.
indentformats C source code into the GNU, BSD, K&R, or your own special indentation style. GNU
indentis more robust & provides more functionality than other such programs, including handling C++ comments. It runs on Unix, Windows, VMS, ATARI and other systems.
The next version which formats C++ source code will soon be released.
- Inetutils (SrcCD)
Inetutils has common networking utilities & servers.
Version 1.3a is more portable than previous releases: Inetutils now works on GNU/Linux and SunOS/Solaris systems, although it still requires a system with some degree of BSD compatibility. This release also has many security holes plugged.
- Ispell (SrcCD) Ispell is an interactive spell checker that suggests "near misses" to replace unrecognized words. System & user-maintained dictionaries for multiple languages can be used. Standalone & Emacs interfaces are available.
- JACAL Not available from the FSF except by FTP
JACAL is a symbolic mathematics system for the manipulation & simplification of algebraic expressions & equations.
The FSF is not distributing JACAL on any physical media. You can FTP it, or visit the Web site `//www-swiss.ai.mit.edu/~jaffer/JACAL.html'.
- jargon (SrcCD) The jargon file is the online version of The New Hacker's Dictionary.
- Karma (SrcCD) Karma is a signal and image processing library and visualization toolkit that provides interprocess communications, authentication, graphics display, and user interface to and manipulation of the Karma network data structure. Several foreign data formats are also supported. Karma comes packaged with a number of generic visualization tools and some astronomy-specific tools.
lessis a display paginator similar to
pg, but with various features (such as the ability to scroll backwards) that most pagers lack.
- LessTif (SrcCD) LessTif is a free clone of Motif.
- Libtool (SrcCD) GNU libtool is a generic library support script which manages the complexity of building and linking against shared libraries. Libtool allows source code package maintainers to easily add shared library support without breaking static-only platform compatibility. Libtool supports building static libraries on all known platforms. Shared library support has been implemented for several platforms.
- Lynx Also see `//lynx.browser.org' (SrcCD) Lynx is a text-only World Wide Web browser for those running character-only ("cursor-addressable") terminals or terminal emulators.
m4is an implementation of the traditional Unix macro processor. It is mostly SVR4 compatible, although it has some extensions (e.g., handling more than 9 positional parameters to macros).
m4also has built-in functions for including files, running shell commands, doing arithmetic, etc.
make(BinCD, SrcCD) [FSFman] GNU
makesupports POSIX 1003.2 and has all but a few obscure features of the BSD and System V versions of
make, and runs on MS-DOS, AmigaDOS, VMS, & Windows NT or 95, as well as all Unix-compatible systems. GNU extensions include long options, parallel compilation, flexible implicit pattern rules, conditional execution, & powerful text manipulation functions. Source for the Make Manual comes with the program (see section GNU Documentation).
- MandelSpawn (SrcCD) A parallel Mandelbrot generation program for the X Window System.
- Maxima (SrcCD) Maxima is a Common Lisp implementation of MIT's Macsyma system for computer based algebra.
- MCSim (SrcCD) MCSim is a general purpose modeling and simulation program which also performs standard or Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations. It allows you to specify a set of linear or nonlinear equations (eventually differential), and solve them using parameter values you choose or parameter values sampled from specified statistical distributions. Simulation outputs can be compared to experimental data for parameter estimation.
- Meta-HTML (SrcCD) <Meta-HTML> is a programming language specifically designed for working within the World Wide Web environment. Although it is a genuine programming language, suitable for large-scale symbolic manipulation, it provides the most commonly wanted Web functionality as built-in primitives, so you don't have to write them.
- Midnight Commander (
mc) (SrcCD) The Midnight Commander is a user friendly & colorful Unix file manager & shell, useful to novice & guru alike. It has a built-in virtual file system that manipulates files inside tar files or files on remote machines using the FTP protocol. This mechanism is extendable with external Unix programs.
- Miscellaneous Files Distribution (SrcCD) The GNU Miscellaneous Files are non-crucial files that are common on various systems, including word lists, airport codes, ZIP codes etc.
mkisofsis a pre-mastering program to generate an ISO 9660 file system. It takes a snapshot of a directory tree, and makes a binary image which corresponds to an ISO 9660 file system when written to a block device.
It can also generate the System Use Sharing Protocol records of the Rock Ridge Interchange Protocol (used to further describe the files in an ISO 9660 file system to a Unix host; it provides information such as longer filenames, uid/gid, permissions, and device nodes). The
mkisofsprogram is often used with
cdwriteprogram works by taking the image that
mkisofsgenerates and driving a cdwriter drive to actually burn the disk.
cdwriteworks under GNU/Linux, and supports popular cdwriter drives. Older versions of
cdwritewere included with older versions of
sunsite.unc.eduhas the latest version: `/pub/Linux/utils/disk-management/cdwrite-2.0.tar.gz'.
mtoolsis a collection of utilities to access MS-DOS disks from Unix without mounting them. It supports Windows 95 style long file names, OS/2 Xdf disks, ZIP/JAZ disks and 2m disks (store up to 1992k on a high density 3 1/2 disk).
- MULE Also see section GNUs Flashes (SrcCD) MULE is a MULtilingual Enhancement to GNU Emacs. MULE text buffers can contain a mix of characters from many languages including: Japanese, Chinese, Korean, Vietnamese, Thai, modern European languages (including Greek & Russian), Arabic, & Hebrew. MULE also provides input methods for all of them. See section GNU & Other Free Software in Japan, for more information about MULE. The version 20 release of Emacs includes the MULE features, making MULE itself obsolete.
muttAlso see `//www.cs.hmc.edu/~me/mutt' (SrcCD) Mutt is a small but very powerful mail client: a hybrid, or "mutt," consisting of features from various other curses-based e-mail clients.
- NetHack (SrcCD)
NetHack is a display-oriented adventure game similar to Rogue.
ASCII, X11, and various PC based GUI displays are supported.
NetHack runs on GNU/Linux, Amiga, Atari, BeBox, Mac, MS Windows, MS-DOS,
OS/2, Unix, VMS, and Windows NT.
The current release of NetHack is 3.2.2.
Bug reports concerning NetHack should be sent to
- NIH Class Library (SrcCD) The NIH Class Library is a set of C++ classes (similar to Smalltalk-80's) written in C++ by Keith Gorlen of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
nviis an implementation of the
viUnix editor. It has all the functionality of the original
openmode & the
lispedit option. Enhancements include multiple buffers, command-line editing & path completion, integrated Perl5 & Tcl scripting languages, Cscope support & tag stacks, 8-bit data support, infinite file/line lengths, infinite undo, language catalogs, incremental search, extended regular expressions, and security fixes. It uses Autoconf for configuration and runs on any Unix-like system.
- Oaklisp (SrcCD) Oaklisp is a fast, portable, object-oriented Scheme with first class types.
- Objective-C Library (SrcCD)
Our Objective-C Class Library
libgnustep-base) has general-purpose, non-graphical Objective-C objects written by Andrew McCallum & others. It includes collection classes for maintaining groups of objects, I/O streams, coders for formatting objects & C types to streams, ports for network packet transmission, distributed objects (remote object messaging), string classes, invocations, notifications, event loops, timers, exceptions, pseudo-random number generators, & more. It has the base classes for the GNUstep project; all but a few of them have already been written. Send queries & bugs to
[email protected]. See "GNUstep" in section Forthcoming GNUs.
- OBST (SrcCD) OBST is a persistent object management system with bindings to C++. OBST supports incremental loading of methods. Its graphical tools require the X Window System. It features a hands-on tutorial including sample programs. It compiles with G++, and should install easily on most Unix platforms.
- Octave Also see `//www.che.wisc.edu/octave' (SrcCD)
Octave does arithmetic for real and complex scalars and matrices,
solves sets of nonlinear algebraic equations,
integrates systems of ordinary differential & differential-algebraic
and integrates functions over finite & infinite intervals.
Two- & three-dimensional plotting is available using
gnuplot. Version 2.0.9 of Octave was released in July. It includes support for dynamically linked functions, user-defined data types, many new functions, & a completely revised manual. Octave works on most Unix systems, OS/2, and Windows NT/95.
- Oleo (SrcCD) Oleo is a spreadsheet program (better for you than the more expensive spreadsheets). It supports the X Window System and character-based terminals, and can output Embedded Postscript renditions of spreadsheets. Keybindings should be familiar to Emacs users and are configurable. Oleo supports multiple variable-width fonts when used under the X Window System or outputting to Postscript devices.
p2cis Dave Gillespie's Pascal-to-C translator. It inputs many dialects (HP, ISO, Turbo, VAX, etc.) & generates readable, maintainable, portable C.
diff's output to a set of original files to generate the modified versions. Recent versions of GNU
patchcan update binary files, and can remove files and directories when they become obsolete.
- PCL (SrcCD) PCL is a free implementation of a large subset of CLOS, the Common Lisp Object System. It runs under both GCL and CLISP, mentioned above.
perl(SrcCD) Larry Wall's
perlcombines the features & capabilities of C,
sh, and provides interfaces to the Unix system calls & many C library routines.
phttpdis a high speed World Wide Web server using multithreading, memory mapping, and dynamic linking to achieve its goals of high speed, scalability, and light weight. It is currently supported only on Solaris (SunOS5).
- plotutils (SrcCD)
The GNU plotutils (plotting utilities) package includes
libplot, a subroutine library for producing 2-D device-independent vector graphics, and
graph, a sample application for plotting 2-D scientific data that is built on top of
libplot. Supported devices include X Window System displays, Postscript devices, and Tektronix emulators.
xfigoutput format, which can be edited with the free graphics editor
xfig, is also supported. The Postscript output format includes directives which allow it to be edited with the
idrawgraphics editor. Included with
spline, a program that uses splines in tension to interpolate data, and
ode, an application that will numerically integrate a system of ordinary differential equations.
- PRCS (SrcCD) PRCS, the Project Revision Control System, is a version control program with purpose similar to that of CVS. It was designed with simplicity in mind. Like CVS, PRCS uses RCS to accomplish this task, but this is inconsequential to the user, as RCS is completely hidden beneath a layer of abstraction.
ptxis our version of the traditional permuted index generator. It handles multiple input files at once, has TeX compatible output, & outputs readable KWIC (KeyWords In Context) indexes without using
nroff. Plans are to merge this package into
It does not yet handle input files that do not fit in memory all at once.
rcis a shell that features a C-like syntax (much more so than
csh) and far cleaner quoting rules than the C or Bourne shells. It's intended to be used interactively, but is also great for writing scripts. It inspired the shell
- RCS (SrcCD)
RCS, the Revision Control System, is used for version control & management
of software projects. Used with GNU
diff, RCS can handle binary files (8-bit data, executables, object files, etc). RCS now conforms to GNU configuration standards & to POSIX 1003.1b-1993. Also see the CVS item above.
readline(BinCD, SrcCD) Brian Fox wrote the
readlinelibrary one weekend in 1987, so that the FSF would have a clean Emacs-like line editing facility that could be used across multiple programs. After installing it in Bash, he went on to test the reusability of the code by adding it to GDB, and then later, to the GNU FTP client. The library supplies many entry points--the simplest interface gives any program the ability to store a history of input lines, and gives the end user a complete Emacs-like (or vi-like) editing capability over the input, simply by replacing calls to
getswith calls to
recodeAlso see section Forthcoming GNUs (SrcCD) GNU
recodeconverts files between character sets and usages. When exact transliterations are not possible, it may delete the offending characters or fall back on approximations. This program recognizes or outputs nearly 150 different character sets and is able to transliterate files between almost any pair. Most RFC 1345 character sets are supported.
regex(SrcCD) The GNU regular expression library supports POSIX.2, except for internationalization features. It is included in many GNU programs which do regular expression matching & is available separately. An alternate regular expression package,
rx, is faster than
regexin many cases; we were planning to replace
rx, but it is not certain this will happen.
- Roxen (SrcCD) Roxen is a modularized, object-oriented, non-forking World Wide Web server with high performance and throughput, and capabilities for on the fly image generation (`//www.roxen.com'). It was formerly named Spinner, but was renamed for trademark reasons.
rsyncis a replacement for
rcpthat has many more features.
rsyncuses the "rsync algorithm", which provides a very fast method for synchronizing large remote files, sending only the differences across the link. It does not require both versions of a file to be local in order to compute the differences. A technical report describing the rsync algorithm is included with the package.
rx(SrcCD) Tom Lord has written
rx, a new regular expression library which is generally faster and more correct than the older GNU
- SAOimage (SrcCD) SAOimage is an X-based astronomical image viewer. It reads array data images, which may be in specific formats, and displays them with a pseudocolor colormap. There is full interactive control of the colormap, panning and zooming, graphical annotation, and cursor tracking in pixel and sky coordinates, among other features.
screenis a terminal multiplexer that runs several separate "screens" (ttys) on a single character-based terminal. Each virtual terminal emulates a DEC VT100 plus several ISO 2022 and ISO 6429 (ECMA 48, ANSI X3.64) functions, including color. Arbitrary keyboard input translation is also supported.
screensessions can be detached and resumed later on a different terminal type. Output in detached sessions is saved for later viewing.
sedis a stream-oriented version of
ed. It comes with the
- Sharutils (SrcCD)
sharmakes so-called shell archives out of many files, preparing them for transmission by electronic mail services;
unsharhelps unpack these shell archives after reception.
uudecodeare POSIX compliant implementations of a pair of programs which transform files into a format that can be safely transmitted across a 7-bit ASCII link.
- Shellutils (SrcCD)
The Shellutils are:
- Shogi (SrcCD)
Shogi is a Japanese game similar to Chess; a major difference is that captured pieces can be returned into play.
GNU Shogi is a variant of GNU Chess; it implements the same features & similar heuristics. As a new feature, sequences of partial board patterns can be introduced to help the program play toward specific opening patterns. It has both character and X display interfaces.
It is primarily supported by Matthias Mutz on behalf of the FSF.
- SIPP (SrcCD) SIPP is a library for photorealistically rendering 3D scenes. Scenes can be illuminated by an arbitrary number of light sources; they are built up of object hierarchies, with arbitrarily many subobjects and subsurfaces. Surfaces can be rendered with either Phong, Gouraud, or flat shading. The library supports programmable shaders and texture mapping.
- Smail (SrcCD)
Smail is a mail transport system, designed as a compatible
drop-in replacement for
sendmail. It uses a much simpler configuration format than
sendmailand is designed to be setup with minimal effort.
- Smalltalk (SrcCD) GNU Smalltalk is an interpreted object-oriented programming language system written in highly portable C. It has been ported to MS-DOS, many Unixes, & other OSes. Features include a binary image save capability, the ability to call user-written C code with parameters, an Emacs editing mode, a version of the X protocol invocable from Smalltalk, optional byte-code compilation and/or execution tracing, & automatically loaded per-user initialization files. It implements all of the classes & protocol in the book "Smalltalk-80: The Language", except for the graphic user interface (GUI) related classes.
- SNePS (SrcCD) SNePS is the Semantic Network Processing System. It is an implementation of a fully intensional theory of propositional knowledge representation and reasoning. SNePS runs under CLISP or GCL.
spellis a clone of standard Unix
spell, implemented as a wrapper to
stowmanages the installation of multiple software packages, keeping them separate while making them appear (via symbolic links) to be installed in the same place. For example, Emacs can be installed in `/usr/local/stow/emacs' and Perl in `/usr/local/stow/perl', permitting each to be administered separately, while with
stowthey will both appear to be installed in `/usr/local'.
- Superopt (SrcCD) Superopt is a function sequence generator that uses an exhaustive generate-and-test approach to find the shortest instruction sequence for a given function. You provide a function as input, a CPU to generate code for, and how many instructions you want. Its use in GCC is described in the ACM SIGPLAN PLDI'92 Proceedings. It supports: SPARC, m68k, m68020, m88k, IBM POWER and PowerPC, AMD 29k, Intel x86 & 960, Pyramid, DEC Alpha, Hitachi SH, & HP--PA.
- Swarm (SrcCD) Swarm is a software package for multi-agent simulation of complex systems being developed at The Santa Fe Institute. Swarm is intended to be a useful tool for researchers in a variety of disciplines, especially artificial life. The basic architecture of Swarm is the simulation of collections of concurrently interacting agents: with this architecture, a large variety of agent based models can be implemented.
tar(BinCD, SrcCD) GNU
tarincludes multi-volume support, the ability to archive sparse files, compression/decompression, remote archives, and special features that allow
tarto be used for incremental and full backups. GNU
taruses an early draft of the POSIX 1003.1 ustar format which is different from the final version. This will be corrected in the future.
- Termcap Library (SrcCD) [FSFman] The GNU Termcap library is a drop-in replacement for `libtermcap.a' on any system. It does not place an arbitrary limit on the size of Termcap entries, unlike most other Termcap libraries. Included is source for the Termcap Manual in Texinfo format (see section GNU Documentation).
- Termutils (SrcCD)
The Termutils package contains programs for controlling terminals.
tputis a portable way for shell scripts to use special terminal capabilities.
tabsis a program to set hardware terminal tab settings.
- TeX (SrcCD) TeX is a document formatter that is used, among other things, by the FSF for all its printed documentation. You will need it if you want to make printed manuals. See `//www.tug.org/web2c/'. The Source Code CD-ROM contains a minimal TeX collection, sufficient to process Texinfo files. For a complete TeX distribution, including both sources and precompiled binaries for many platforms, consider teTeX. This is available on CD-ROM (see `//www.tug.org/texlive.html'), or by FTP. The FTP instructions change too frequently to include them here; see `ftp://ftp.tug.org/tex/unixtex.ftp'.
- Texinfo (SrcCD) [FSFman]
Texinfo is a set of utilities
texinfmt.el) which generate printed manuals, plain ASCII text, & online hypertext documentation (called "Info"), & can read online Info documents; Info files can also be read in Emacs. Version 3 has both Emacs Lisp & standalone programs written in C or as shell scripts. Texinfo mode for Emacs enables easy editing & updating of Texinfo files. Source for the Texinfo Manual is included (see section GNU Documentation).
- Textutils (SrcCD)
The Textutils programs manipulate textual data. They include:
- TIFF library (SrcCD)
The TIFF library,
libtiff, is a library for manipulating Tagged Image File Format files, a commonly used bitmap graphics format.
- Tile Forth (SrcCD)
Tile Forth is a 32-bit implementation of the Forth--83 standard written in C, allowing it to be easily ported to new systems & extended with any C-function (graphics, windowing, etc).
Many documented Forth libraries are available, e.g. top-down parsing, multi-threads, & object-oriented programming.
timereports (usually from a shell) the user, system, & real time used by a process. On some systems it also reports memory usage, page faults, etc.
ucblogoimplements the classic teaching language, Logo.
unitsGNU `units' converts between different units of measurement, such as miles/gallon to km/liter. (It can only handle multiplicative scale changes, so it cannot convert Celsius to Fahrenheit though it could convert temperature differences between those temperatures scales.)
- UUCP (SrcCD)
GNU's UUCP system (written by Ian Lance Taylor) supports the
g(all window & packet sizes),
e, Zmodem, & two new bidirectional (
j) protocols. With a BSD sockets library, it can make TCP connections. With TLI libraries, it can make TLI connections. Source is included for a manual (not yet published by the FSF).
- vera (SrcCD) VERA (Virtual Entity of Relevant Acronyms) is a document listing thousands of acronyms of the computer field.
- viewfax (SrcCD) Viewfax is a tool for displaying fax files on an X display. It can display raw, digifax or tiff/f files, such as those received by HylaFAX.
- W3 (SrcCD) W3 (written by William Perry in Emacs Lisp) is an extensible, advanced World Wide Web browser that runs as part of Emacs. It supports all the bells and whistles you find on the Web today, including frames, tables, stylesheets, and much more. See `//www.cs.indiana.edu/elisp/w3/docs.html'.
wdiffis a front-end to GNU
diff. It compares two files, finding the words deleted or added to the first to make the second. It has many output formats and works well with terminals and pagers.
wdiffis very useful when two texts differ only by a few words and paragraphs have been refilled. Plans are to merge this package into
Wgetnon-interactively retrieves files from the WWW using HTTP & FTP. It is suitable for use in shell scripts.
windows32is a set of header files & import libraries that can be used by GNU tools for compiling & linking programs to be run on Windows NT/95.
- WN (SrcCD) WN is a World Wide Web server designed to be secure and flexible. It offers many different capabilities in pre-parsing files before passing them to the client, and has a very different design from Apache and the NCSA server.
- X11 (SrcCD)
We distribute Version 11, Release 6.3 of the X Window System with the latest patches & bug fixes. X11 includes all of the core software, documentation, contributed clients, libraries, & toolkits, games, etc.
While supplies last, we will distribute X11R5 on the November 1993 Source Code CD-ROM.
xboardis a graphical chessboard for X Windows. It can serve as a user interface to the Crafty or GNU chess programs, the Internet Chess Servers, e-mail correspondence chess, or games saved in Portable Game Notation.
xgrabscis a screen capture program similar to
xwdbut with a graphical user interface, more ways of selecting the part of the screen to capture, & different types of output: Postscript, color Postscript, xwd, bitmap, pixmap, & puzzle.
xinfois an X-windows program for reading Info files. It uses a special widget, which is available for use in other programs.
- xmcd Also see `//sunsite.unc.edu/~cddb/xmcd/' (SrcCD)
xmcdis an X11-based CD player utility and
cdais a command-line driven, non-graphical CD audio player.
xmcdis developed to use the OSF/Motif API (version 1.1 and later) and can also be used with LessTif, the free Motif clone. In its evolution over the past few years,
xmcdhas established itself as the premier CD player application for the X window system with an attractive, easy-to-use user interface. It is feature-rich and runs on virtually all of the popular Unix and OpenVMS platforms. It also supports the widest array of CD-ROM and CD-R devices, including some older SCSI-1 drives that do not work with other CD player applications. The remote CD database query feature fully utilizes the Internet and taps on a vast repository of CD artists/titles, track titles and other information. Multi-disc changers are also supported. Like many other CD player applications,
xmcdsupports a CD database of disc and track titles and other information. A distinguishing feature of
xmcdis the ability to connect to a remote CD database server to query this information. Many public Internet CD database servers have been established around the world for this purpose, and
xmcdalso allows the user to submit new CD entries to the master database.
xshogiis a graphical Shogi (Japanese Chess) board for the X Window System. It can serve as a user interface to GNU Shogi, as a referee for games between two humans, or as a client for the Internet Shogi Server.
Yglemulates a subset of SGI's GL (Graphics Language) library under X11 on most platforms with an ANSI C compiler (including GCC). It has most two-dimensional graphics routines, the queue device & query routines, double buffering, RGB mode with dithering, Fortran bindings, etc.
- zlibc (SrcCD)
Zlibc is an uncompressing C library for GNU/Linux and SunOS systems.
It is a preloadable shared object that allows executables to
uncompress the datafiles that they need on the fly.
No kernel patch, no recompilation of these executables and
no recompilation of the libraries is needed;
the package overrides the
openfunction (and other system call functions) in the shared library.
Program/Package Cross Reference
Here is a list of the package each GNU program or library is in. You can FTP the current list in the file `/pub/gnu/ProgramIndex' from a GNU FTP host (see section How to Get GNU Software).
* 4dview geomview * a2p perl * a2x xopt * ac bsd44 * accton bsd44 * ackpfd phttpd * acl bsd44 * acm acm * acms acm * addbbox geomview * addftinfo Groff * adventure bsd44 * afm2tfm TeX * aid ID Utils * amd bsd44 * ansitape bsd44 * AnswerGarden xopt * apply bsd44 * appres xreq * apropos bsd44 * ar Binutils * arithmetic bsd44 * arp bsd44 * atc bsd44 * authwn WN * autoconf Autoconf * autoheader Autoconf * automake Automake * autoreconf Autoconf * autoscan Autoconf * autoupdate Autoconf * auto_box xopt * auto_box xreq * b2m Emacs * backgammon bsd44 * bad144 bsd44 * badsect bsd44 * banner bsd44 * basename Shellutils * bash BASH * battlestar bsd44 * bc bc * bcd bsd44 * bdes bsd44 * bdftops Ghostscript * beach_ball xopt * beach_ball xreq * beach_ball2 xopt * bibtex TeX * biff bsd44 * bison Bison * bitmap xreq * boggle bsd44 * bpltobzr Fontutils * bugfiler bsd44 * buildhash Ispell * bzrto Fontutils * c++ GCC * c++filt Binutils * c2ph perl * ca100 xopt * caesar bsd44 * cal bsd44 * calendar bsd44 * canfield bsd44 * cat Textutils * cbars wdiff * cc GCC * cc1 GCC * cc1obj GCC * cc1plus GCC * cccp GCC * cdwrite mkisofs * cfengine cfengine * cgi Spinner * charspace Fontutils * checknr bsd44 * chess bsd44 * chflags bsd44 * chgrp Fileutils * ching bsd44 * chmod Fileutils * chown Fileutils * chpass bsd44 * chroot bsd44 * ci RCS * cksum Textutils * cktyps g77 * clisp CLISP * clri bsd44 * cmail xboard * cmmf TeX * cmodext xopt * cmp Diffutils * co RCS * col bsd44 * colcrt bsd44 * colrm bsd44 * column bsd44 * comm Textutils * compress bsd44 * comsat bsd44 * connectd bsd44 * cp Fileutils * cpicker xopt * cpio cpio * cpp GCC * cppstdin perl * cribbage bsd44 * crock xopt * csh bsd44 * csplit Textutils * ctags Emacs * ctwm xopt * cu UUCP * cut Textutils * cvs CVS * cvscheck CVS * cvtmail Emacs * cxterm xopt * d Fileutils * date Shellutils * dc bc * dd Fileutils * ddd DDD * defid ID Utils * delatex TeX * demangle Binutils * descend CVS * detex TeX * df Fileutils * dhtppd phttpd * diff Diffutils * diff3 Diffutils * diffpp enscript * digest-doc Emacs * dipress bsd44 * dir Fileutils * dircolors Fileutils * dirname Shellutils * dish xopt * disklabel bsd44 * diskpart bsd44 * dld dld * dm bsd44 * dmesg bsd44 * doschk doschk * dox xopt * du Fileutils * dump bsd44 * dump mkisofs * dumpfs bsd44 * dvi2tty TeX * dvicopy TeX * dvips TeX * dvitype TeX * ecc ecc * echo Shellutils * ed ed * edit-pr GNATS * editres xreq * edquota bsd44 * eeprom bsd44 * egrep grep * eid ID Utils * emacs Emacs * emacsclient Emacs * emacsserver Emacs * emacstool Emacs * emu xopt * enscript enscript * env Shellutils * eqn Groff * error bsd44 * es es * esdebug es * etags Emacs * ex nvi * example geomview * exicyclog Exim * exigrep Exim * exim Exim * eximon Exim * eximon Exim * eximstats Exim * exinext Exim * exiwhat Exim * expand Textutils * expect DejaGnu * expr Shellutils * exterm xopt * f2c f2c * factor bsd44 * fakemail Emacs * false Shellutils * fastboot bsd44 * fax2ps HylaFAX * faxalter HylaFAX * faxanswer HylaFAX * faxcover HylaFAX * faxd HylaFAX * faxd.recv HylaFAX * faxmail HylaFAX * faxquit HylaFAX * faxrcvd HylaFAX * faxrm HylaFAX * faxstat HylaFAX * fc f2c * fdraw xopt * ffe g77 * fgrep grep * fid ID Utils * file bsd44 * find Findutils * find2perl perl * finger Finger * fingerd Finger * fish bsd44 * fixfonts Texinfo * fixinc.svr4 GCC * fixincludes GCC * flex flex * flex++ flex * flythrough geomview * fmt bsd44 * fnid ID Utils * fold Textutils * font2c Ghostscript * fontconvert Fontutils * forth Tile Forth * forthicon Tile Forth * forthtool Tile Forth * fortune bsd44 * fpr bsd44 * freq Ispell * freqtbl Ispell * from bsd44 * fsck bsd44 * fsplit bsd44 * fstat bsd44 * ftp bsd44 * ftp Inetutils * ftpd bsd44 * ftpd Inetutils * g++ GCC * gas Binutils * gawk GAWK * gcal gcal * gcc GCC * gcore bsd44 * gdb GDB * genclass libg++ * geomstuff geomview * gettext gettext * getty bsd44 * gftodvi TeX * gftopk TeX * gftype TeX * ghostview Ghostview * gid ID Utils * ginsu geomview * git GIT * gitaction GIT * gitcmp GIT * gitkeys GIT * gitmatch GIT * gitmount GIT * gitps GIT * gitredir GIT * gitrgrep GIT * gitview GIT * gitwipe GIT * gn GN * gnans Gnans * gnanslator Gnans * gnats GNATS * gnuchess Chess * gnuchessc Chess * gnuchessn Chess * gnuchessr Chess * gnuchessx Chess * gnuclient gnuserv * gnudoit gnuserv * gnupdisp Shogi * gnuplot gnuplot * gnuplot_x11 gnuplot * gnuserv gnuserv * gnushogi Shogi * gnushogir Shogi * gnushogix Shogi * go GnuGo * gpc xopt * gpc xreq * gperf cperf * gperf libg++ * gprof Binutils * graffiti geomview * graph Graphics * grep grep * grodvi Groff * groff Groff * grops Groff * grotty Groff * groups Shellutils * gs Ghostscript * gsbj Ghostscript * gsdj Ghostscript * gslj Ghostscript * gslp Ghostscript * gsnd Ghostscript * gsrenderfont Fontutils * gunzip gzip * gvclock geomview * gwm xopt * gzexe gzip * gzip gzip * h2ph perl * h2pl perl * hack bsd44 * hangman bsd44 * head Textutils * hello hello * hexdump bsd44 * hexl Emacs * hinge geomview * hostname Shellutils * hp2xx hp2xx * hterm xopt * htmlencode phttpd * httpd apache * httpdecode phttpd * i18nOlwmV2 xopt * i2mif xopt * ico xopt * ico xreq * id Shellutils * ident RCS * ifconfig bsd44 * ifnames Autoconf * ImageMagick xopt * imageto Fontutils * iman xopt * imgrotate Fontutils * indent indent * indxbib Groff * inetd bsd44 * inetd Inetutils * info Texinfo * inimf TeX * init bsd44 * initex TeX * inn bsd44 * install Fileutils * iostat bsd44 * isodiag mkisofs * isodump mkisofs * ispell Ispell * ixterm xopt * ixx xopt * join Textutils * jot bsd44 * jove bsd44 * kdestroy bsd44 * kdump bsd44 * kermit bsd44 * kgames xopt * kgmon bsd44 * kill bsd44 * kinit bsd44 * kinput2 xopt * klist bsd44 * kpasswdd bsd44 * ksrvtgt bsd44 * kterm xopt * ktrace bsd44 * lam bsd44 * larn bsd44 * lasergnu gnuplot * last bsd44 * lastcomm bsd44 * latex TeX * lclock xopt * ld Binutils * leave bsd44 * less less * lesskey less * libavcall.a ffcall * libbfd.a Binutils * libbfd.a GDB * libbzr.a Fontutils * libc.a C Library * libcompat.a bsd44 * libcurses.a bsd44 * libcurses.a ncurses * libdcurses.a ncurses * libedit.a bsd44 * libF77.a f2c * libF77.a g77 * libg++.a libg++ * libgdbm.a gdbm * libgf.a Fontutils * libgmp.a gmp * libgnanslib.a Gnans * libgnussl.a gnussl * libI77.a f2c * libI77.a g77 * libkvm.a bsd44 * libm.a bsd44 * libncurses.a ncurses * libnihcl.a NIHCL * libnihclmi.a NIHCL * libnihclvec.a NIHCL * libnls.a xreq * libobjects.a libobjects * liboctave.a Octave * liboldX.a xreq * libpbm.a Fontutils * libPEXt.a xopt * libpk.a Fontutils * libresolv.a bsd44 * librpc.a bsd44 * libsipp.a SIPP * libtcl.a DejaGnu * libtelnet.a bsd44 * libterm.a bsd44 * libtermcap.a Termcap * libtfm.a Fontutils * libtiff.a tiff * libutil.a bsd44 * libvacall.a ffcall * libWc.a xopt * libwidgets.a Fontutils * libX.a xreq * libXau.a xreq * libXaw.a xreq * libXcp.a xopt * libXcu.a xopt * libXdmcp.a xreq * libXmp.a xopt * libXmu.a xreq * libXO.a xopt * libXop.a xopt * libXp.a xopt * libXpex.a xopt * libXt.a xopt * libXt.a xreq * libXwchar.a xopt * liby.a bsd44 * libYgl.a Ygl * lid ID Utils * limn Fontutils * listres xopt * listres xreq * lkbib Groff * ln Fileutils * locate Findutils * lock bsd44 * logcvt-ip2n phttpd * logger bsd44 * login bsd44 * logname Shellutils * logo ucblogo * lookbib Groff * lorder bsd44 * lpr bsd44 * ls Fileutils * lynx lynx * m4 m4 * mail bsd44 * mail-files Sharutils * mailq smail * mailshar Sharutils * make make * make-docfile Emacs * make-path Emacs * makeindex TeX * makeinfo Texinfo * MakeTeXPK TeX * man bsd44 * man-macros Groff * maniview geomview * mattrib mtools * maze xopt * maze xreq * mazewar xopt * mc mc * mcd mtools * mcopy mtools * mcserv mc * md5sum Textutils * mdel mtools * mdir mtools * me-macros Groff * medit2gv geomview * merge RCS * mesg bsd44 * mf TeX * mformat mtools * mft TeX * mgdiff xopt * mh bsd44 * mille bsd44 * mkafmmap enscript * mkcache GN * mkdep bsd44 * mkdir Fileutils * mkfifo Fileutils * mkid ID Utils * mkisofs mkisofs * mklocale bsd44 * mkmanifest mtools * mkmf bsd44 * mkmodules CVS * mknod Fileutils * mkstr bsd44 * mlabel mtools * mm-macros Groff * mmd mtools * monop bsd44 * more bsd44 * morse bsd44 * mount bsd44 * mountd bsd44 * movemail Emacs * mprof bsd44 * mrd mtools * mread mtools * mren mtools * ms-macros Groff * msgcmp gettext * msgfmt gettext * msgmerge gettext * msgs bsd44 * msgunfmt gettext * mst Smalltalk * mt cpio * mterm xopt * mtree bsd44 * mtype mtools * mule MULE * muncher xopt * mv Fileutils * mvdir Fileutils * mwrite mtools * NDview geomview * nethack NetHack * netstat bsd44 * newfs bsd44 * nfsd bsd44 * nfsiod bsd44 * nfsstat bsd44 * nice Shellutils * nl Textutils * nlmconv Binutils * nm Binutils * nohup Shellutils * nose geomview * notify HylaFAX * nroff Groff * number bsd44 * objc GCC * objcopy Binutils * objdump Binutils * objective-c GCC * obst-boot OBST * obst-CC OBST * obst-cct OBST * obst-cgc OBST * obst-cmp OBST * obst-cnt OBST * obst-cpcnt OBST * obst-csz OBST * obst-dir OBST * obst-dmp OBST * obst-gen OBST * obst-gsh OBST * obst-init OBST * obst-scp OBST * obst-sil OBST * obst-stf OBST * oclock xreq * octave Octave * od Textutils * oleo Oleo * ora-examples xopt * p2c p2c * pagesize bsd44 * palette xopt * pascal bsd44 * passwd bsd44 * paste Textutils * patch patch * patgen TeX * pathalias bsd44 * pathchk Shellutils * pathto smail * pax bsd44 * pbmplus xopt * perl perl * pfbtops Groff * phantasia bsd44 * phttpd phttpd * pic Groff * pico pine * pig bsd44 * pine pine * ping bsd44 * pixedit xopt * pixmap xopt * pktogf TeX * pktype TeX * plaid xopt * plot2fig Graphics * plot2plot Graphics * plot2ps Graphics * plot2tek Graphics * pltotf TeX * pollrcvd HylaFAX * pom bsd44 * pooltype TeX * portmap bsd44 * ppt bsd44 * pr Textutils * pr-addr GNATS * pr-edit GNATS * primes bsd44 * printenv Shellutils * printf Shellutils * protoize GCC * proxygarb Spinner * ps bsd44 * ps2ascii Ghostscript * ps2epsi Ghostscript * ps2fax HylaFAX * psbb Groff * pstat bsd44 * psycho xopt * ptester phttpd * ptx ptx * pubdic+ xopt * puzzle xopt * puzzle xreq * pwd Shellutils * pyramid xopt * query-pr GNATS * quiz bsd44 * quot bsd44 * quota bsd44 * quotacheck bsd44 * quotaon bsd44 * rain bsd44 * random bsd44 * ranlib Binutils * rbootd bsd44 * rc rc * rcp bsd44 * rcp Inetutils * rcs RCS * rcs-to-cvs CVS * rcs2log Emacs * rcsdiff RCS * rcsfreeze RCS * rcsmerge RCS * rdist bsd44 * reboot bsd44 * recode recode * recvstats HylaFAX * red ed * refer Groff * remsync Sharutils * renice bsd44 * repquota bsd44 * restore bsd44 * rev bsd44 * rexecd bsd44 * rexecd Inetutils * rlog RCS * rlogin bsd44 * rlogin Inetutils * rlogind bsd44 * rlogind Inetutils * rm Fileutils * rmail bsd44 * rmdir Fileutils * rmt cpio * rmt tar * robots bsd44 * rogue bsd44 * route bsd44 * routed bsd44 * rr xopt * rs bsd44 * rsh bsd44 * rsh Inetutils * rshd bsd44 * rshd Inetutils * rsmtp smail * runq smail * runtest DejaGnu * runtest.exp DejaGnu * ruptime bsd44 * rwho bsd44 * rwhod bsd44 * s2p perl * sail bsd44 * saoimage SAOimage * savecore bsd44 * sc bsd44 * sccs bsd44 * sccs2rcs CVS * scdisp xopt * screen screen * script bsd44 * scsiformat bsd44 * sctext xopt * sdiff Diffutils * sed sed * send-pr GNATS * sendfax HylaFAX * sendmail bsd44 * sgi2fax HylaFAX * sgn GN * sh bsd44 * shar Sharutils * shinbun xopt * shogi Shogi * showfont xopt * showmount bsd44 * shutdown bsd44 * size Binutils * sj3 xopt * sjxa xopt * slattach bsd44 * sleep Shellutils * sliplogin bsd44 * smail smail * smtpd smail * snake bsd44 * snftobdf xopt * soelim Groff * sort Textutils * sos2obst OBST * spider xopt * split Textutils * startslip bsd44 * stereo geomview * stf OBST * strings Binutils * strip Binutils * stty Shellutils * su Shellutils * sum Textutils * superopt Superopt * swapon bsd44 * sweep geomview * sync bsd44 * sysctl bsd44 * syslog Inetutils * syslogd bsd44 * syslogd Inetutils * systat bsd44 * tabs Termutils * tac Textutils * tackdown geomview * tail Textutils * taintperl perl * talk bsd44 * talk Inetutils * talkd bsd44 * talkd Inetutils * tangle TeX * tar tar * tbl Groff * tcal gcal * tcl DejaGnu * tclsh DejaGnu * tcopy bsd44 * tcp Emacs * tee Shellutils * tek2plot Graphics * telnet bsd44 * telnet Inetutils * telnetd bsd44 * telnetd Inetutils * test Shellutils * test-g++ DejaGnu * test-tool DejaGnu * tetris bsd44 * tex TeX * tex3patch Texinfo * texi2dvi Texinfo * texindex Texinfo * texspell TeX * textfmt HylaFAX * tfmtodit Groff * tftopl TeX * tftp bsd44 * tftp Inetutils * tftpd bsd44 * tftpd Inetutils * tgrind TeX * time time * timed bsd44 * timer Emacs * timex xopt * tip bsd44 * tkpostage xopt * tn3270 bsd44 * togeomview geomview * touch Fileutils * tput Termutils * tr Textutils * traceroute bsd44 * transcript HylaFAX * transfig xopt * transformer geomview * trek bsd44 * trigrp geomview * trn3 bsd44 * troff Groff * trpt bsd44 * trsp bsd44 * true Shellutils * tset bsd44 * tsort bsd44 * tty Shellutils * ttygnans Gnans * tunefs bsd44 * tupdate gettext * tvtwm xopt * twm xreq * ul bsd44 * ulpc Spinner * umount bsd44 * uname Shellutils * uncompress gzip * unexpand Textutils * unifdef bsd44 * unify wdiff * uniq Textutils * unprotoize GCC * unshar Sharutils * unvis bsd44 * update bsd44 * updatedb Findutils * users Shellutils * uuchk UUCP * uucico UUCP * uuconv UUCP * uucp UUCP * uucpd bsd44 * uucpd Inetutils * uudecode Sharutils * uudir UUCP * uuencode Sharutils * uulog UUCP * uuname UUCP * uupath smail * uupick UUCP * uurate UUCP * uusched UUCP * uustat UUCP * uuto UUCP * uux UUCP * uuxqt UUCP * v Fileutils * vacation bsd44 * vandal xopt * vcdiff Emacs * vdir Fileutils * vftovp TeX * vgrind bsd44 * vi nvi * viewres xopt * viewres xreq * vine xopt * vipw bsd44 * virmf TeX * virtex TeX * vis bsd44 * vmstat bsd44 * vptovf TeX * w bsd44 * waisgn GN * wakeup Emacs * wall bsd44 * wargames bsd44 * wc Textutils * wdiff wdiff * weave TeX * what bsd44 * whatis bsd44 * whereis bsd44 * who Shellutils * whoami Shellutils * whois bsd44 * window bsd44 * winterp xopt * wish DejaGnu * wn WN * wndex WN * worm bsd44 * worms bsd44 * write bsd44 * wump bsd44 * x11perf xreq * x2p perl * xalarm xopt * xancur xopt * xargs Findutils * xauth xreq * xbfe Fontutils * xbiff xopt * xbiff xreq * xboard xboard * xboing xopt * xbuffy3 xopt * xcalc xopt * xcalc xreq * xcalendar xopt * xcdplayer xopt * xcell xopt * xclipboard xreq * xclock xreq * xcmdmenu xopt * xcms xopt * xcmsdb xreq * xcmstest xreq * xco xopt * xcolorize xopt * xcolors xopt * xconsole xreq * xcrtca xopt * xdaliclock xopt * xdiary xopt * xditview Groff * xditview xopt * xditview xreq * xdm xreq * xdpyinfo xreq * xdu xopt * xdvi TeX * xdvi xopt * xdvorak xopt * xearth xopt * xed xopt * xedit xopt * xedit xreq * xev xopt * xev xreq * xexit xopt * xeyes xopt * xeyes xreq * xfd xreq * xfed xopt * xfedor xopt * xfeoak xopt * xferstats HylaFAX * xfig xopt * xfontsel xopt * xfontsel xreq * xforecast xopt * xgas xopt * xgas xreq * xgc xopt * xgc xreq * xgettext gettext * xhearts xopt * xhelp xopt * xhost xreq * xinit xreq * xkeycaps xopt * xkill xreq * xlax xopt * xlayout xopt * xlbiff xopt * xless xopt * xload xopt * xload xreq * xlogin xopt * xlogo xreq * xlsatoms xreq * xlsclients xreq * xlsfonts xreq * xmag xreq * xmail xopt * xmailbox xopt * xmailwatcher xopt * xman xopt * xman xreq * xmandel xopt * xmessage xopt * xmeter xopt * xmh xreq * xmh-icons xopt * xmh.editor xopt * xmodmap xreq * xmon xopt * xmove xopt * xmphone xopt * xpd xopt * xphoon xopt * xpipeman xopt * xplot Graphics * xpostit xopt * xpr xopt * xpr xreq * xprompt xopt * xproof xopt * xprop xreq * xpserv xopt * xrdb xreq * xrefresh xreq * xrsh xopt * xrubik xopt * xrunclient xopt * xscope xopt * xscreensaver xopt * xsession xopt * xset xreq * xsetroot xreq * xshogi xshogi * xstdcmap xreq * xstr bsd44 * xtalk xopt * xterm xreq * xterm_color xopt * xtetris xopt * xTeXcad.13 xopt * xtiff xopt * xtokid ID Utils * xtree xopt * xtv xopt * xwd xreq * xwininfo xreq * xwud xreq * yacc bsd44 * yes Shellutils * youbin xopt * yow Emacs * zcat gzip 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The Deluxe Distribution
The Free Software Foundation has been asked repeatedly to create a package that provides executables for all of our software. Normally we offer only sources. The Deluxe Distribution provides binaries with the source code and includes six T-shirts, all our CD-ROMs, printed manuals, & reference cards.
The FSF Deluxe Distribution contains the binaries and sources to hundreds of different programs including Emacs, the GNU C/C++ Compiler, the GNU Debugger, the complete X Window System, and all the GNU utilities.
We will make a Deluxe Distribution for most machines/operating systems. We may be able to send someone to your office to do the compilation, if we can't find a suitable machine here. However, we can only compile the programs that already support your chosen machine/system--porting is a separate matter. (To commission a port, see the GNU Service Directory; details in section Free Software Support.) Compiling all these programs takes time; a Deluxe Distribution for an unusual machine will take longer to produce than one for a common machine. Please contact the FSF Office with any questions.
We supply the software on a write-once CD-ROM (in ISO 9660 format with
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The manuals included are one each of Bison, Calc, Gawk, GCC, GNU C Library, GDB, Flex, GNU Emacs Lisp Reference, Programming in Emacs Lisp: An Introduction, Make, Texinfo, & Termcap manuals; six copies of the GNU Emacs manual; and ten reference cards each for Emacs, Bison, Calc, Flex, & GDB.
Every Deluxe Distribution also has a copy of the latest editions of our CD-ROMs that have sources of our software & compiler tool binaries for some systems. The CDs are in ISO 9660 format with Rock Ridge extensions.
The price of the Deluxe Distribution is $5000 (shipping included). These sales provide enormous financial assistance to help the FSF develop more free software. To order, please fill out the "Deluxe Distribution" section on section Free Software Foundation Order Form, and send it to:
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We offer the section Source Code CD-ROMs, and section January 1997 Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM, each of which is available as either the latest version at full price, or (while supplies last) an older copy at a reduced price.
Our CDs are in ISO 9660 format & can be mounted as a read-only file system on most computers. If your driver supports it, you can mount each CD with "Rock Ridge" extensions & it will look like a regular Unix file system, rather than one full of truncated & otherwise mangled names that fit vanilla ISO 9660.
You can build most of the software without copying the sources off the CD. You only need enough disk space for object files and intermediate build targets.
Pricing of the GNU CD-ROMs
If a business or organization is ultimately paying, the July 1997 Source CD set costs $240. The set costs $60 if you, an individual, are paying out of your own pocket. The January 1997 Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM costs $220 for a business or organization, and $55 for an individual.
What Do the Different Prices Mean?
The software on our disks is free; anyone can copy it and anyone can run it. What we charge for is the physical disk and the service of distribution.
We charge two different prices depending on who is buying. When a company or other organization buys the July 1997 Source CD-ROMs, we charge $240. When an individual buys the same CD-ROMs, we charge just $60. This distinction is not a matter of who is allowed to use the software. In either case, once you have a copy, you can distribute as many copies as you wish and there's no restriction on who can have or run them. The price distinction is entirely a matter of what kind of entity pays for the CDs.
You, the reader, are certainly an individual, not a company. If you are buying a disk "in person", then you are probably doing so as an individual. But if you expect to be reimbursed by your employer, then the disk is really for the company; so please pay the company price and get reimbursed for it. We won't try to check up on you--we use the honor system--so please cooperate.
Buying CDs at the company price is very helpful for GNU; just 150 Source CDs at that price support an FSF programmer or tech writer for a year.
Why Is There an Individual Price?
In the past, our distribution tapes were ordered mainly by companies. The CD at the price of $240 provides them with all of our software for a much lower price than they would previously have paid for six different tapes. To lower the price more would cut into the FSF's funds very badly and decrease the software development we can do.
However, for individuals, $240 is too high a price; hardly anyone could afford that. So we decided to make CDs available to individuals at the lower price of $60.
Is There a Maximum Price?
Our stated prices are minimum prices. Feel free to pay a higher price if you wish to support GNU development more. The sky's the limit; we will accept as high a price as you can offer. Or simply give a donation (tax-deductible in the U.S.) to the Free Software Foundation, a tax-exempt public charity.
January 1997 Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM
In January 1997 we released the fourth edition of our CD-ROM that has binaries and complete sources for GNU compiler tools for some systems which lack a compiler. This enables the people who use these systems to compile GNU and other free software without having to buy a proprietary compiler. You can also use these GNU tools to compile your own C/C++/Objective-C programs. Older editions of this CD are available while supplies last at a reduced price; section Free Software Foundation Order Form.
We hope to have more systems on each update of this CD. If you can help build binaries for new systems (especially those that don't come with a C compiler), or have one to suggest, please contact us at the addresses on the top menu.
* DJGPP * GCC/G++/Objective-C * GNU C Library * GDB * Binutils * Bison * Emacs (MS-DOS only) * Flex * Make * libg++
On these platforms:
Source Code CD-ROMs
We have several versions of our Source Code CD-ROMs available, including:
- section July 1997 Source Code CD-ROMs, the newest release, has programs, bug fixes, & improvements not on the other CDs.
- section January 1997 Source Code CD-ROMs.
- July 1996 Source Code CD-ROMs, section Free Software Foundation Order Form.
- December 1995 Source Code CD-ROM, section Free Software Foundation Order Form.
- June 1995 Source Code CD-ROM, section Free Software Foundation Order Form.
- May 1994 Source Code CD-ROM, section Free Software Foundation Order Form.
- November 1993 Source Code CD-ROM, section Free Software Foundation Order Form.
- May 1993 Source Code CD-ROM, section Free Software Foundation Order Form.
- October 1992 Source Code CD-ROM, section Free Software Foundation Order Form.
The older Source CDs are available while supplies last at a reduced price (please note that the December 1994 Source CD is permanently out of stock). All the Source CDs have Texinfo source for the GNU manuals listed in section GNU Documentation.
Much of X11 is not on the older Source CDs.
There are no precompiled programs on these Source CDs. You will need a C compiler (programs which need some other interpreter or compiler normally provide the C source for a bootstrapping program). We ship C compiler binaries for some systems on the section January 1997 Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM.
July 1997 Source Code CD-ROMs
The 10th edition of our Source Code CD is available now with two CD-ROM disks. It has programs, bug fixes, & improvements not on the older Source CDs. It has these packages, & some manuals that are not part of packages. The version number of each package listed might be higher on the 10th edition CD due to new releases being made since this list was generated.
* abuse 2.0 * acct 6.3 * acm 4.8 * aegis 2.3 * apache 1.2.4 * Autoconf 2.12 * Automake 1.2 * BASH 2.01 * bc 1.04 * Binutils 2.8.1 * Bison 1.25 * C Library 2.0.5 * Calc 2.02f * cfengine 1.4.1 * Chess 4.0.pl77 * CLISP 1997.08.07 * Common Lisp 2.2.2 * cook 1.10 * cperf 2.1a * cpio 2.4.2 * CVS 1.9 * cxref 1.4 * ddd 2.1.1 * DejaGnu 1.3 * Diffutils 2.7 * dld 3.3 * doschk 1.1 * ed 0.2 * Elib 1.0 * elisp archive 1997.08.19 * Emacs 18.59 * Emacs 19.34 * Emacs 20.1 * enscript 1.5.0 * es 0.84 * Exim 1.70 * f2c 1997.07.13 * ffcall 1.1 * Fileutils 3.16 * Findutils 4.1 * Finger 1.37 * flex 2.5.4 * Fontutils 0.6 * g77 0.5.19.1 * gawk 3.0.3 * gcal 2.10 * GCC/G++/Objective-C 188.8.131.52 * GDB 4.16 * gdbm 1.7.3 * Generic NQS 3.50.2 * geomview 1.6.1 * gettext 0.10 * gforth 0.3.0 * Ghostscript 3.33 * Ghostview 1.5 * Ghostview for Windows 2.1 * GIT 4.3.16 * gmp 2.0.2 * GN 2.24 * Gnans 1.5.1 * gnat 3.09 * GNATS 3.2 * GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual 1.03 * GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual 2.4.2 * GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual 2.4.jp2.0 * GnuGo 1.2 * gnuplot 3.5 * gnuserv 2.1alpha * gnussl 0.2.1 * gpc 2.0 * grep 2.0 * Groff 1.11 * guavac 0.3.1 * guile 1.2 * gzip 1.2.4 * hello 1.3 * hp2xx 3.1.4 * HylaFAX 4.0pl1 * Hyperbole 4.01 * ID Utils 3.2 * ilisp 5.8.a04 * indent 1.9.1 * Inetutils 1.3a * Ispell 3.1.20 * jargon 4.0.0 * karma 1.6 * less 332 * LessTif 0.80 * libg++ 2.7.2 * libobjects 0.1.19 * libtool 1.0 * lynx 2.7.1 * m4 1.4 * make 3.75 * MandelSpawn 0.07 * maxima 5.2 * mc 4.0 * MCSim 4.1 * mesa 2.1 * <Meta-HTML> 5.04 * miscfiles 1.1 * mkisofs 1.11 * mm 1.07 * mtools 3.8 * MULE 2.3 * mutt 0.81 * NetHack 3.2.2 * NIHCL 3.1.4 * nvi 1.79 * Oaklisp 930720 * OBST 3.4.3 * Octave 2.0.9 * Oleo 1.6 * p2c 1.20 * patch 2.5 * pcl-gcl 2.2 * perl 4.036 * perl 5.003 * phttpd 0.99.76 * pips 1.01 * plotutils 1.1 * prcs 1.2 * Programming in Emacs Lisp an Introduction 1.04 * ptx 0.4 * rc 1.4 * RCS 5.7 * readline 2.1 * recode 3.4 * regex 0.12 * Roxen 1.1 * rsync 1.6.3 * rx 1.5 * SAOimage 1.20 * screen 3.7.4 * sed 2.05 * Sharutils 4.2 * Shellutils 1.16 * Shogi 1.2p03 * SIPP 3.1 * smail 3.2 * Smalltalk 1.1.5 * sneps 2.3.1 * spell 1.0 * stow 1.3.2 * Superopt 2.5 * swarm 1.0.2 * tar 1.12 * Termcap 1.3 * Termutils 2.0 * TeX 3.1415 * Texinfo 3.11 * Textutils 1.22 * tiff 3.4 * Tile Forth 2.1 * time 1.7 * ucblogo 4.1 * units 1.53 * UUCP 1.06.1 * vera 1.0 * vrweb 1.5 * W3 2.2.26 * wdiff 0.5 * wget 1.4.5 * windows32api 0.1.2 * WN 1.18.1 * X11R6.3 * xboard 3.6.2 * xgrabsc 2.41 * xinfo 1.01.01 * xmcd 2.2 * xshogi 1.2p03 * Ygl 3.1 * zlibc 0.9e
January 1997 Source Code CD-ROMs
We still have copies of the 9th edition of our Source CD with two CD-ROM disks. It has these packages, & some manuals that are not part of packages:
* acm 4.7 * apache 1.1.1 * Autoconf 2.12 * Automake 1.0 * BASH 2.0 * bc 1.03 * Binutils 2.7 * Bison 1.25 * C Library 2.0 * Calc 2.02f * cfengine 1.3.16 * Chess 4.0.pl77 * CLISP 1996.05.30 * Common Lisp 2.2.1 * cperf 2.1a * cpio 2.4.2 * CVS 1.9 * ddd 2.0 * DejaGnu 1.3 * Diffutils 2.7 * dld 3.3 * doschk 1.1 * ed 0.2 * Elib 1.0 * elisp archive * Emacs 18.59 * Emacs 19.34 * enscript 1.4.0 * es 0.84 * Exim 1.59 * f2c 1996.12.09 * ffcall 1.1 * Fileutils 3.16 * Findutils 4.1 * Finger 1.37 * flex 2.5.4 * Fontutils 0.6 * g77 0.5.19 * gawk 3.0.1 * gcal 2.10 * GCC/G++/Objective-C 184.108.40.206 * GDB 4.16 * gdbm 1.7.3 * Generic NQS 3.50.2 * geomview 1.6.1 * gettext 0.10 * gforth 0.2.1 * Ghostscript 3.33 * Ghostview 1.5 * Ghostview for Windows 2.1 * GIT 4.3.16 * gmp 2.0.2 * GN 2.24 * Gnans 1.5.1 * gnat 3.07 * GNATS 3.2 * GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual 1.03 * GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual 2.4.2 * GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual 2.4.jp2.0 * GnuGo 1.2 * gnuplot 3.5 * gnuserv 2.1alpha * gnussl 0.2.1 * gpc 2.0 * Graphics 0.17 * grep 2.0 * Groff 1.10 * guile 1.0 * gzip 1.2.4 * hello 1.3 * hp2xx 3.1.4 * HylaFAX 4.0pl1 * Hyperbole 4.01 * ID Utils 3.2 * ilisp 5.8.a04 * indent 1.9.1 * Inetutils 1.2j * Ispell 3.1.20 * jargon 4.0.0 * karma 1.6 * less 321 * libg++ 2.7.2 * libobjects 0.1.19 * lynx 2.6 * m4 1.4 * make 3.75 * MandelSpawn 0.07 * maxima 5.2 * mc 3.2.1 * mesa 2.1 * <Meta-HTML> 5.01 * miscfiles 1.0 * mkisofs 1.05GNU * mm 1.07 * mtools 3.1 * MULE 2.3 * mutt 0.57 * ncurses 1.9.9e * NetHack 3.2.2 * NIHCL 3.1.4 * nvi 1.79 * Oaklisp 930720 * OBST 3.4.3 * Octave 2.0.2 * Oleo 1.6 * p2c 1.20 * patch 2.1 * pcl-gcl 2.1 * perl 4.036 * perl 5.003 * phttpd 0.99.72.1 * pine 3.91 * pips 1.01 * Programming in Emacs Lisp an Introduction 1.04 * ptx 0.4 * rc 1.4 * RCS 5.7 * readline 2.0 * recode 3.4 * regex 0.12 * Roxen 1.1 * rx 1.5 * SAOimage 1.19 * scheme 7.4 * screen 3.7.2 * sed 2.05 * Sharutils 4.2 * Shellutils 1.16 * Shogi 1.2p03 * SIPP 3.1 * smail 3.2 * Smalltalk 1.1.5 * sneps 2.3.1 * stow 1.3.2 * Superopt 2.5 * tar 1.11.8 * Termcap 1.3 * Termutils 2.0 * TeX 3.1415 * Texinfo 3.9 * Textutils 1.22 * tiff 3.4 * Tile Forth 2.1 * time 1.7 * ucblogo 3.6 * units 1.53 * UUCP 1.06.1 * vrweb 1.3 * W3 2.2.26 * wdiff 0.5 * wget 1.4.2b * windows32api 0.1.2 * WN 1.17.1 * X11R6.3 * xboard 3.5.0 * xgrabsc 2.41 * xinfo 1.01.01 * xshogi 1.2p03 * Ygl 3.1
CD-ROM Subscription Service
Our subscription service enables you to stay current with the latest GNU developments. For a one-time cost equivalent to three Source CD-ROMs (plus shipping in some cases), we will ship you four new versions of the section Source Code CD-ROMs. The CD-ROMs are sent as they are issued (currently twice a year). Subscriptions to the Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM are available on the same basis; these are usually issued once per year.
Each edition of the section Source Code CD-ROMs, has sources for the X Window System as well as GNU software.
Please note: In two cases, you must pay 4 times the normal shipping required for a single order when you pay for each subscription. If you're in Alaska, Hawaii, or Puerto Rico you must add $20.00 for shipping for each subscription. If you're outside of the U.S., Canada, and Puerto Rico, you must add $80.00 for each subscription. See "CD-ROMs" and "Tax and Shipping Costs" on section Free Software Foundation Order Form.
GNU is dedicated to having quality, easy-to-use online & printed documentation. GNU manuals are intended to explain underlying concepts, describe how to use all the features of each program, & give examples of command use. GNU manuals are distributed as Texinfo source files, which yield both typeset hardcopy via the TeX document formatting system and online hypertext display via the menu-driven Info system. Source for these manuals comes with our software; here are the manuals that we publish as printed books. See section Free Software Foundation Order Form, to order them.
Most GNU manuals are bound as soft cover books with lay-flat bindings. This allows you to open them so they lie flat on a table without creasing the binding. They have an inner cloth spine and an outer cardboard cover that will not break or crease as an ordinary paperback will. Manuals currently in lay-flat binding are: Using and Porting GNU CC, GDB, Emacs, Emacs Lisp Reference, Programming in Emacs Lisp: An Introduction, GNU Awk User's Guide, Make, and Bison. Our other manuals also lie flat when opened, using a GBC binding. Our manuals are 7in by 9.25in except the 8.5in by 11in Calc manual.
The edition number of the manual and version number of the program listed after each manual's name were current at the time this Bulletin was published.
Debugging with GDB (for Version 4.16) tells how to run your program under GNU Debugger control, examine and alter data, modify a program's flow of control, and use GDB through GNU Emacs.
The GNU Emacs Manual (13th Edition for Version 20)
describes editing with GNU Emacs.
It explains advanced features, including
international character sets;
outline mode and regular expression search;
how to use special programming modes to write
languages like C++ and TeX;
how to use the
how to compile and correct code; how to make your own keybindings; and
other elementary customizations.
Programming in Emacs Lisp: An Introduction (October 1995 Edition 1.04) is for people who are not necessarily interested in programming, but who do want to customize or extend their computing environment. If you read it in Emacs under Info mode, you can run the sample programs directly.
The GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual (Edition 2.4 for Version 19.29) and The GNU Emacs Lisp Reference, Japanese Edition (Japanese Draft Revision 1.0, from English Edition 2.4 for Version 19.29) cover this programming language in depth, including data types, control structures, functions, macros, syntax tables, searching/matching, modes, windows, keymaps, byte compilation, and the operating system interface.
The GNU Awk User's Guide (Edition 1.0 for Version 3.0) tells how
gawk. It is written for those who have never used
describes features of this powerful string and record manipulation
It clearly delineates those features which are part of POSIX
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awk program portability.
GNU Make (Edition 0.51 for Version 3.76 Beta) describes GNU
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tells how to write makefiles, which specify how a program is to be
compiled and how its files depend on each other. Included are an
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The Flex manual (Edition 1.03 for Version 2.3.7) teaches you to
write a lexical scanner definition for the
flex program to create a
C++ or C-coded scanner that recognizes the patterns defined. You need
no prior knowledge of scanners.
The Bison Manual (November 1995 Edition for Version 1.25) teaches you how to write context-free grammars for the Bison program that convert into C-coded parsers. You need no prior knowledge of parser generators.
Using and Porting GNU CC (November 1995 Edition for Version 2.7.2) tells how to run, install, and port the GNU C Compiler to new systems. It lists new features and incompatibilities of GCC, but people not familiar with C will still need a good reference on the C programming language. It also covers G++.
The Texinfo manual (Edition 2.24 for Version 3) explains the markup language that produces our online Info documentation & typeset hardcopies. It tells you how to make tables, lists, chapters, nodes, accented & special characters, indexes, cross references, & how to catch mistakes.
The Termcap Manual (3rd Edition for Version 1.3), often described as "twice as much as you ever wanted to know about termcap," details the format of the termcap database, the definitions of terminal capabilities, and the process of interrogating a terminal description. This manual is primarily for programmers.
The C Library Reference Manual (Edition 0.08 for Version 2.0)
describes the library's facilities, including both what Unix calls
"library functions" & "system calls." We are doing small copier runs
of this manual until it becomes more stable. Please send fixes to
The Emacs Calc Manual (for Version 2.02) is both a tutorial and a reference manual. It tells how to do ordinary arithmetic, how to use Calc for algebra, calculus, and other forms of mathematics, and how to extend Calc.
How to Get GNU Software
All the software & publications from the FSF are distributed with permission to modify, copy, and redistribute. One way to get GNU software is to copy it from someone else who has it. You can also get GNU software directly from the FSF by ordering CD-ROMs and books. Such orders provide most of the funds for the FSF staff to develop more free software, so please support our work by ordering from the FSF if you can. See section Free Software Foundation Order Form.
There are also third party groups who distribute our software. Some are listed in section Free Software Redistributors Donate. Also see section Free Software for Non-Unix-Like Systems. Please note that the Free Software Foundation is not affiliated with them in any way and is not responsible for either the currency of their versions or the swiftness of their responses.
If you decide to do business with a commercial distributor of free software, ask them how much they do to assist free software development, e.g., by contributing money to free software development projects or by writing free software themselves for general use. By basing your decision partially on this factor, you can help encourage support for free software development.
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Most of the files on the FTP sites are compressed with
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Free Software for Non-Unix-Like Systems
We do not support GNU software on most non-Unix-like systems because it is peripheral to the GNU Project. However, we are willing to publish information about groups who do support and maintain them. If you are aware of any such efforts, please send the details, including postal addresses, archive sites, and mailing lists, to either address on the top menu.
Please do not ask us about any other software. We do not maintain any of it and have no additional information.
- Boston Computer Society The BCS had numerous free microcomputer programs, including some GNU programs. The BCS is now dissolved (see `//www.bcs.org/' for details), but many of the smaller groups operating under it (see `//bcs1.ziplink.net/groups/' for a list) are continuing.
- GNU Software on the Amiga
A large number of GNU programs have been ported to the Amiga and are part of Geek Gadgets, a project headed by Fred Fish (
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For info on the GNU Emacs port, ask Dave Gilbert,
[email protected]or see `//www.realtime.tinymush.org/~dgilbert/emacs-19.html' for a status update.
You can get more info from a GNU FTP host (see section How to Get GNU Software) in the file `/pub/gnu/MicrosPorts/Amiga'.
- GNU Software for Atari TOS and Atari Minix
Get Atari ports by anonymous FTP from
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- GNU Software for OS/2
Ports of many GNU programs are on the FTP host
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This is Eberhard Mattes'
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emx 0.9cis a port of GCC 220.127.116.11. To join the e-mail list, send email containing `subscribe emx' to
Project GNU Wish List
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Thanks to the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Laboratory for Computer Science, and Project Athena, all at MIT, for their invaluable assistance.
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For their help in Japan, thanks to: the Japan Unix Society, Nobuyuki Hikichi, Mieko Hikichi, Ken'ichi Handa, Yukitoshi Fujimura, Prof. Takafumi Hayashi, Takeshi Hayashi, Mr. Akiba, Mitsuru Nakamura of Village Center, Inc.
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We thank those groups who have donated us booths at their conferences, including the Sun Users Group.
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